General bibliography


            All the sources I use in the list of associations are public information, such as public records of many kinds, city and telephone directories, newspaper articles, and published books.  In a very few instances, which I note in the text, people associated with a group volunteered for the purposes of this work information that was not otherwise in the public domain. 


1. Local sources


            Books, pamphlets, directories

            John Leighton Chase. The Sidewalk Companion to Santa Cruz Architecture. Santa Cruz, California: Museum of Art and History, 3rd ed., 2005.

            A Century of Christian Witness: History of First Congregational Church, Santa Cruz, California. Santa Cruz: Church Historical Committee, 1963.

            Donald Clark. Santa Cruz County Place Names. Santa Cruz, California: Santa Cruz Historical Society, 1986.

            Wallace W. Elliott.  Santa Cruz County California. Illustrations with Historical Sketch.  Indexed Edition.  Santa Cruz, California: The Museum of Art and History at the McPherson Center, 1997.

            Phil Francis.  Santa Cruz County; A Faithful Reproduction in Print and Photography of its Climate, Capabilities and Beauties. San Francisco: H. S. Crocker Company, 1896.

            Ross Eric Gibson.  Series of columns on early churches and other religious institutions in early Santa Cruz County in the San Jose Mercury News, May 18, 1993 and Mar 15, Aug 16, and Nov 22, 1994.

            E. S. Harrison.  History of Santa Cruz County, California. San Francisco: Pacific Press Publ. Co., 1892.

            Margaret Koch.  Santa Cruz County - Parade of the Past.  Santa Cruz, California: Western Tanager Press/Valley Publishers, 1973.

            The Ladies of Bonny Doon Club. Memories of the Mountain. Family Life in Bonny Doon 1800-2000. Bloomington, Indiana: AuthorHouse, 2004.

            Betty Lewis. Watsonville Yesterday.  Watsonville: Litho Watsonville Press, 1978.

            --           Watsonville: Memories that Linger. Santa Cruz: Valley Publishers, 1980

            Judy Pybrum Malmin. Corralitos. Corralitos: published by the author, 1998 revised edition.

            Nancy McCarthy. Where Grizzlies Roamed the Canyons.  The Story of the San Lorenzo Valley.  Palo Alto, California: Garden Court Press, 1994.

            The McHugh Scrapbook. 3 volumes. Thomas McHugh compiled much historical information which is to be found in the form of newspaper clippings in a scrapbook. Some of the clippings which were used in the present study were dated in the 1950s, and others have no date at all, but none of them used here cite the sources of the information, and they are included by the writer only if they plausibly fill in gaps left by reliable sources.

            Stephen Payne, A Howling Wilderness: The Summit Road of the Santa Cruz Mountains 1850-1906. Los Gatos, California: Loma Prieta Publishing, 1978. 

            Leon Rowland. Annals of Santa Cruz. Santa Cruz: Seven Seas Book Shop, 1947.

            Santa Cruz Historic Building Survey. Vol I. San Francisco: Charles Hall Page & Associates, 1976.  Vol II. Santa Cruz: City of Santa Cruz Department of Planning & Community Development, 1989.

            Donald E. Seapy. Scotts Valley: as it was and as it would become. Ed. by Dave G. Seapy. Scotts Valley, California: 2001.

            Carolyn Swift. Historic Context Statement for the City of Capitola. Capitola: Capitola Museum, published draft of June 24, 2004.

            Margaret Louise Rapp Tarquinio. Mama's Memoirs: Growing Up in the Santa Cruz Mountains.  Los Gatos California: Vista Del Mar Press, 1995.

            Henry Albert van Coenen Torchiana.  Story of the Mission Santa Cruz. San Francisco: Paul Elder and Company, 1933.

            John V. Young.  Ghost Towns of the Santa Cruz Mountains.  Santa Cruz: Paper Vision Press, 1979.


            City and county directories

            The City Directory, Santa Cruz, California. Western Directory Co., Santa Cruz, 1923-1924.

            Edward Martin. Directory of the town of Watsonville. Ed. Martin, Watsonville. C.O. Cummings, Publisher, 1873.

            Polk's Santa Cruz California City and County Directory.  R.L. Polk & Co. San Francisco and Los Angeles.  1924-1964 for Santa Cruz and Watsonville combined, and 1965-1988 for Santa Cruz and Watsonville separately.  A few of these many issues were missing from the local collections I consulted.  In Chapter 4 Particulars I cite Polk from 1963, 1973, and 1982-83 for listings of organizations offering instruction in meditation, martial arts, and alternative medicine.

            Resident and Classified Business Directory Santa Cruz, East Santa Cruz, Watsonville, Bowlder Creek [sic], Capitola and Soquel. Pasadena and Santa Cruz: California Directory Co., 1904.

            San Jose City Directory: including Santa Clara, Santa Cruz and Monterey Counties. San Francisco: McKenney Directory Co., 1887-88 and 1889.  San Jose(?): F. M. Husted Publisher, 1892.

            Santa Cruz City Directory for the Year 1902. Santa Cruz: K. E. Irish Press.

            Santa Cruz County Directory 1916-1917. Santa Cruz: The Santa Cruz Directory Company, 1916.

            Thurston's Resident and Classified Business Directory of Santa Cruz, Watsonville and Boulder Creek 1910-1911 and 1912-1913.  Santa Cruz: Albert Thurston.

            Yellow Pages and White Pages telephone directories for all years from 1946 to 2006.  During some periods these were of SBC, during others they were of Pacific Telephone and Telegraph, and during others they were of Pacific Bell.  Currently they are of AT&T.


            Periodicals  (currently issued unless otherwise noted)

            Boulder Creek Mountain Echo 1896-1916 (indexed)

            Connection Magazine

            Mid County Post

            Santa Cruz Evening News 1919-1941 (indexed)

            Santa Cruz Good Times

            Santa Cruz Metro

            Santa Cruz Sentinel (with variants in name) 1856-1884, 1940-1943, 1949-1956, 1999-present (indexed)

            Santa Cruz Surf 1883-1919 (indexed)

            Valley Press

            Watsonville Pajaronian (with variants in name): beginning of year church directories for the years 1885-1930


            Public documents

            Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation

            Santa Cruz County Deeds

            Santa Cruz County Records



            The first three of the sites named here have third party lists, which I use cautiously, confirming the existence and nature of organizations they list with at least one other source before including them.


   2010.  Lists Christian churches, schools, businesses, etc. in Santa Cruz.

   2010.  Lists many non-traditional spiritual organizations, including derivatives such as Yoga instruction schools.


   2010.  For several years before 2006 this website's address was


            Libraries, museums, archives

            California Historical Society Archives, San Francisco

            California State Library, Sacramento

            Capitola Museum

            Graduate Theological Union Flora Lamson Hewlett Library, Berkeley

            Pajaro Valley Historical Association, Watsonville

            San Lorenzo Valley Museum, Boulder Creek

            Santa Cruz County Museum of Art and History

            Santa Cruz County Public Library System

            University of California Berkeley Bancroft Library and Doe Library

            University of California Santa Cruz Library Special Collections

2. Regional sources


            Kay Alexander. Californian Catholicism. Santa Barbara: Fithian Press, 1993.

            Charles Volney Anthony. Fifty Years of Methodism: A History of the Methodist Episcopal Church Within the Bounds of the California Annual Conference From 1847 to 1897. San Francisco: Methodist Book Concern, 1901.

            Eldon G. Ernst with Douglas Firth Anderson. Pilgrim Progression: The Protestant Experience in California. Santa Barbara: Fithian Press, 1993.

            Sandra Sizer Frankiel. California's Spiritual Frontiers: Religious Alternatives in Anglo-Protestantism, 1850-1910. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988.

            James N. Gregory. American Exodus: The Dust Bowl Migration and Okie Culture in California. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.

            Robert S. Hamilton, Jr. The History and Influence of the Baptist Church in California, 1848-1899. Los Angeles: University of Southern California Ph.D. dissertation, 1953.

            Laurie F. Maffly-Kipp. Religion and Society in Frontier California. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994.

            Harold O. McCumber. Beginnings of the Seventh-Day Adventist Church in California.  Ph.D. dissertation, University of California Berkeley, 1934.

            Cybelle T. Shattuck. Dharma in the Golden State: South Asian Religious Traditions in California. Santa Barbara: Fithian Press, 1996.

            John K. Simmons and Brian Wilson. Competing Visions of Paradise: The California Experience of 19th Century American Sectarianism. Santa Barbara: Fithian Press, 1993.

            Edward Martinus Stensrud. The Lutheran Church and California. San Francisco, 1916.

            Ferenc Morton Szasz. Religion in the Modern American West. Tucson: The University of Arizona Press, 2000.

            E. B. Ware. History of the Disciples of Christ in California. Healdsburg, California, 1916.



            Clifford M. Drury. "The beginnings of the Presbyterian Church on the Pacific Coast," The Pacific Historical Review, Vol. 9, No. 2 (June, 1940), pp. 195-204.

            Eldon G. Ernst. "The Emergence of California in American Religious Historiography," Religion and American Culture: A Journal of Interpretation, Vol. 11 (2001), No. 1, pp. 31-52.

3. General sources

            (General works on particular spiritual families are located with the families themselves.)



            Communities Directory:  A guide to intentional communities and cooperative living.  Rutledge, Missouri: Fellowship for International Community, 2000.

            Eileen W. Lindner, ed. Yearbook of American & Canadian Churches 2003. Nashville: Abingdon Press.  Almost entirely about Protestant bodies.

            Charles H. Lippy and Peter W. Williams, Eds., Encyclopedia of the American Religious Experience.  3 volumes. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1988.

            Frank S. Mead, Handbook of Denominations in the United States. 10th ed., revised by Samuel S. Hill. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1995.

            J. Gordon Melton. The Encyclopedia of American Religions. 2nd ed. Detroit: Gale Research Co., 1987.

            J. Gordon Melton. The Encyclopedia of American Religions: Religious Creeds.  Detroit:  Gale Research Co., 1988.

            J. Gordon Melton. Encyclopedic Handbook of Cults in America. Revised and updated edition. New York: Garland Publishing Co., 1992.

            Christopher Partridge, Ed.  New Religions.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.



   2010.  Hartford Institute for Religious Research.  Especially valuable is the list of denominational homepages.

   2010.  Non-judgmental information on the basics of many religious bodies.  In 2010 it was being changed; parts of it had been archived and could be reached through

   2010.  Extensive treatment of the pros and cons of non-mainstream spirituality.


   2010.  Much information on many groups, but with explicit Christian editorializing.

   2010.  Immense categorized list of websites which makes it easy to find information on religious (as well as other) bodies; also brings up religious texts.

   2010. Contains a list of denominational homepages.

   2010.  Abundant information on a very broad range of spirituality.

   2010.  Texts of many writings considered holy.

   2010. American Religious Data Archive.  Has huge data bases, including statistics.