Chapter 2: List of associations


The lead line of each association's entry includes

            its primary name,

            the type of organization, if not primarily for worship,

            its location,

            the time span of its existence



(an abbreviated version of the section “Use of the list” in the first chapter)


            If an association has changed its name I list it under the name which seems to be dominant.  The other name or names are included in the entry, and are prefixed with the symbol "<".  Each is given a line in the alphabetical index.

            The first line of each entry locates the association in place and time. If I discovered that a group was founded in 1950 and still exists, I put 1950-[the present year]. If I found no date for it earlier than 1950, but I suspect that it was established before that, I use italics: 1950-[the present year].  Similarly, if I know that an organization was founded in 1950 and no longer exists, but I can trace it only to 1980 and suspect that it lasted longer than that, I put 1950-1980. Please note that the first or the last year an organization appears in a directory listing may differ slightly from the true first or last year of its existence.

            Every association is identified with a local community.  If the name of the association does not include the name of the community, I add it.  In some cases the association has moved in the course of time; in this case the local community named here is the one that seemed primary in view of its history  If an association lies outside the recognized limits of any of these communities, I list it under Santa Cruz County.  For a few associations which lie just outside the County, I indicate the county they are in, which is either Monterey County or Santa Clara County.

            The City of Santa Cruz began using a new street address numbering system in 1948.  Then, for instance, 17 Elm Street became 117 Elm Street.

            Throughout this work references are to the symbol "#" classification numbers, and not to page numbers. In some cases this expedites the use of a “find” command.


#1  Catholic and Episcopalian (Western Liturgical family)



                        #1.1    Roman Catholic church: local assoc. founded before 1901

                        #1.2    Roman Catholic church: local assoc. founded after 1900

                        #1.3    Recently founded Catholic separatist groups

                        #1.4    Episcopalian


            The components of this family place a special value on ancient Western Christian traditional ceremony in their worship


#1.1    Roman Catholic church: local assoc. founded before 1901


            Since Mission times the Roman Catholic Church has been the largest religious group of any kind in Santa Cruz, as the statistics in Chapter 3 Tables show.  Its history in this county, however, is complex.  First there was the Catholicism of the Spanish missionaries and their indigenous converts; then there were the many and diverse immigrant groups which brought their Catholicism with them.  The page references in the following paragraph refer to Californian Catholicism by Kay Alexander.

            From the founding of the first Alta California Mission until the end of the Mexican period, the Missionaries baptised about 99,000 natives, although by the year 1873, the California Catholic Indian population was only about 3,000 (p. 35).  More numerous than this component of the Catholic community at the time California became part of the United States were the Spanish-Americans (p. 39).  By then, however, Irish Catholics had started to arrive, as well as the earliest Italian Catholics, who were merchants and political refugees (p. 35).  With the Gold Rush French, German, and Slavonic Catholics appeared in Northern California (p. 49), as did Basques and more Italians (p. 50).  Later Catholic immigrants included Native Americans from New Mexico, where the Catholic Church had been established before it was in California (p. 60), and Filipinos, who came after the Spanish American War (p. 61).  Then, principally after the Mexican revolution of 1910, the great wave of Mexican Catholics rolled northward (p. 61) and gave the strongest Hispanic-Catholic imprint to present day Catholicism in California (p. 61).

Finally, a huge component of contemporary Catholicism in California consists of the Catholic segment of the millions of Americans who moved to California, especially during and after World War II.  My Uncle George Liske and his family, coming from Illinois, were among these, and they were typical of the ethnically assimilated Americans who did not bring Irish or German or Polish Catholicism with them.

As far as I observe, all the above elements of the Catholic population of California have been represented in Santa Cruz County.  It is also true that many Italians came to Santa Cruz County before and after World War II, but they have not, to my observation, made a noticeable ethnic imprint on Santa Cruz Catholicism.  The Croatian Catholics who settled in the Watsonville area (I do not know the details of their history) do not seem to have left an ethnic religious imprint on the Catholic Church there.

There are dissident Catholic groups which have left behind allegiance to the Church as an institution either theologically, by denying, for instance, the infallibility of the Pope, or practically, by ignoring selected pronouncements of his.  I list several of such groups under #1.3.


Holy Cross Church. Santa Cruz, 1791-2010.

            Founded in 1791 by Franciscan missionaries as <Mission Santa Cruz or <Mission of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross, the mission, like the other Franciscan missions in Alta California, had many functions in the life of the area.  It was secularized by the Mexican government in 1834, its buildings gradually deteriorated, and there is no record of its being served consistently by any priest between 1844 and 1853. In 1853, however, the Bishop of San Francisco appointed a priest as pastor. (van Coenen Torchiana, Story of the Mission Santa Cruz, passim)  The church facade collapsed in 1857, but a wooden church structure was built the very same year, and in 1889 the present brick church was built. (Chase, Sidewalk Companion, pp. 99-100)

            Interesting details about life in the mission are in "The Narratives of Lorenzo Asisara: Three Accounts of Life and Death in Mission Santa Cruz," in Linda Yamane, Ed. A Gathering of Voices.  The Native Peoples of the Central California Coast. Santa Cruz, California: Santa Cruz County History Journal Issue No. 5, 2002, pp. 51-76.

Now the church is at 126 High St., Santa Cruz 95060, tel. 423-4182. (2010 White Pages)


Holy Cross Cemetery and Mausoleum. Service org, Santa Cruz, 1791-2010.

            Mission Santa Cruz had a cemetery in its compound from its beginning in 1791.  Needing more land for burials, the new parish in 1868 bought the land where the cemetery now is, and began to use it for interments in 1873.  Many remains were also transferred from the original cemetery. (Holy Cross Cemetery and Mausoleum Compiled Records.  Volume I. Old Holy Cross Interments.  Surnames A - L.  Published by The Genealogical Society of Santa Cruz County, 2004)

            The cemetery is now at 2271 7th Ave., Santa Cruz 95062, tel. 475-3222. (2010 White Pages)


Rancho Las Aromitas Chapel. Monterey County, 183?-1854?

            “On Sundays the various families [Californios of the lower Pajaro Valley] would wend their way to the Church at the Rancho Los[sic] Aromas, long since abandoned as a place of worship, …” (Edward Martin. Directory of the town of Watsonville, 1873, p. 31)

            In 1833 Padre Jose Antonio Anzar was sent from the Franciscan College of Guadalupe, Zacatecas, a Mexican Franciscan institution, to be the last Franciscan pastor of Mission San Juan Bautista.  His brother, Juan Miguel Anzar, who came with him, bought the Rancho Las Aromitas y Agua Caliente, a corner of which lay in what is now Santa Cruz County. (Charles W, Clough, San Juan Bautista. The Town, The Mission & the Park. Fresno: Word Dancer Press, 1996, p. 24)  In 1853 Juan Miguel Anzar died, and the next year his brother returned to Mexico.

            Juan Miguel’s house was on the Rancho Las Aromitas.  Local historians of the area are certain that a chapel was constructed on his property, but its location is no longer known.

            Other references concerning the Anzars and their role in local history are Isaac L. Mylar, Early Days at the Mission San Juan Bautista, Fresno: Word Dancer Press, New Edition 1994; Marjorie Price, East of the Gabilans, Fresno: Valley Publishers, 1977; 2010.


Our Lady Help of Christians Valley Church. Santa Cruz County, 1856-2010.

            Entitled <Immaculate Heart of Mary, the original church of this congregation was dedicated in 1856.  It was enlarged in 1860 and destroyed by fire in 1927, but a new structure, the present one, was erected in 1928.  In 1921 the change was made to the present title, but the church is also known simply as <Valley Catholic Church. (A Tombstone and Vital Records Survey to the Historic 'Valley Catholic Church Cemetery.' Vol 1. Compiled by D. D. Fletcher, 2001)

The church is now at 2401 E. Lake Ave., Watsonville 95076, tel. 722-2665. (2010 White Pages)  Associated with it are the cemetery and orphanage listed separately below.


Valley Catholic Cemetery. Service org, Santa Cruz County, 1856-2010.

            The cemetery was established adjacent to Our Lady Help of Christians Valley Church at the same time as the church. (A Tombstone and Vital Records Survey to the Historic 'Valley Catholic Church Cemetery.' Vol 1. Compiled by D. D. Fletcher, 2001)

It is called <St. Francis Cemetery on the Street Guide and Map of Santa Cruz County, North American Maps, San Francisco, 1971.

The cemetery office is now at 66 Marin St., Watsonville 95076, tel. 722-0310. (2010 White Pages)


Holy Cross Catholic Elementary and Junior High School. Santa Cruz, 1862-2010.

            "The Daughters of Charity founded Holy Cross School in 1862 as an orphanage. In 1926, the parish built a structure on High Street and a co-educational day school was established for Grades 1 - 12. The Holy Cross Elementary School was constructed on the site of the old orphanage in 1958 to relieve crowded conditions in the High Street building. In 1977 the present junior high building was constructed." ( 2010)

Some additional details: the first, temporary quarters of the original school and orphanage were in the adobe which was the juzgado of Mexican Days. (1) The original boarding school for girls and orphanage fronted Mission Street and its grounds extended back along Emmet Street to School Street.  These buildings were left vacant after the opening of the High Street structure, but were torn down in 1944.  In 1943 the Daughters of Charity left Santa Cruz and turned over their teaching activities to the Dominican Sisters of Adrian, Michigan, who at first lived in the former Henry Willey home at the corner of Mission and Sylvar Streets. (2)  The high school was closed in 1970. (3)

The present day school is at 150 Emmet St., Santa Cruz 95060, tel. 423-4447. (4)



1.         Rowland, Annals, p. 75

2.         The McHugh Scrapbook, Vol. 1, p. 8.

3.         Koch, Parade of the Past, p. 193

4.         2010 White Pages, which, however, do not state the fact that the school has the junior high level as well as the elementary


St. Patrick's Church. Watsonville, 1865-2010.

            Although its first church structure was built in 1865, the congregation was not established as a parish until a few years after that.  In 1903 its new, brick gothic building was dedicated.  Badly damaged in the earthquake of 1989, the structure was demolished and its replacement was dedicated in 1994. (Elliott,  Santa Cruz County, pp. 93-94; Koch, Parade of the Past, pp. 172 and 177;  San Jose Mercury News, Mar. 15, 1994; and Watsonville Yesterday, p. 114)

             The church is now at 721 Main St., Watsonville 95076, tel. 724-1317. (2010 Whitepages)


Resurrection Catholic Community. Aptos, 1867-2008.

            In the beginning there was a chapel built in 1867 on land donated by Rafael Castro in connection with Our Lady of Mt. Carmel Cemetery.  The chapel, which operated as a mission of Holy Cross Church and later of St. Joseph's, was razed in 1935. (1)  The present church structure was dedicated in 2002, (2) and it is at 7600 Soquel Dr., Aptos 95003,  tel. 688-4300. (3)



1.         Survey of Our Lady of Mt. Carmel Cemetery. Compiled by Phyllis Casey and Dorothy Garske, July, 2002, Preface and Historical Introduction.

2. 2010

3.         2010 White Pages


Our Lady of Mt. Carmel Cemetery.  Service org, Aptos, 1867-2010.

            Also called <Aptos Cemetery, <Mt. Calvary Cemetery, <Calvary Cemetery, <St. Joseph's Cemetery, and <Resurrection Cemetery, it was established on land donated by Rafael Castro in 1867. (Survey of Our Lady of Mt. Carmel Cemetery. Compiled by Phyllis Casey and Dorothy Garske, July, 2002, Preface and Historical Introduction)  It is adjacent to Resurrection Catholic Community's church structure, as I observed in 2010.


Franciscan/Salesian Orphanage/School/Seminary. Santa Cruz County, 1869-1981.

            Originally adjacent to Our Lady Help of Christians Valley Church and Cemetery, this school began as a catholic orphanage in 1869, and it was operated by Franciscans until 1919, when it was taken over by the Salesian Society. (Watsonville: The First Hundred Years. Watsonville: The Watsonville Chamber of Commerce, 1952, pp. 64-65  In 1960 it became <St. Francis Preparatory, a seminary for high school age aspirants to the priesthood in the Salesian Society, (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 2395) and it appears that it was a seminary through 1967. (photo of the class of 1967 in 2008)  The most recent structure, built in 1928 across the road from the church, was lost in the 1989 earthquake. (San Jose Mercury News, Mar. 15, 1994)

            Some details can be added to the above chronology from the yearly Yellow Pages entries of the school. Thus, through 1959 it was a resident boys' school for grades 6 through 12.  From 1961 through 1975 it is simply listed as a school.  In 1976, 77, and 78 it is a boys' school for grades 6 through 9, in 1979 through 1981 it remains a boys' school for grades 6 through 8, and that is the final year of its listing as a school.


Villa Maria del Mar. Conf center, Live Oak, 1891-2010.

            This facility was established as <Santa Maria del Mar, a religious resort, in 1891 by the Catholic Ladies' Aid Society, and a hotel was built on the property in the same year. (1)  Remodeled and enlarged, the original structure is still in use, and since 1963 it has been a retreat center, operated by Sisters of the Holy Names. (2)   It is at 2-1918 East Cliff Dr., Santa Cruz 95062, tel. 475-1236. (3)



1.         Francis, History, pp. 59-60; The McHugh Scrapbook, vol. 3, p. 47; the San Jose Mercury News, Aug. 16, 1994

2.         Brochure distributed in 2005

3.         2010 White Pages


Christian Brothers School. Santa Cruz, 1891-1921.

(Rowland, Annals, p. 75)


Villa Manresa. Conf center, La Selva Beach, 1894-1925.

 An ocean frontage property of about 60 acres donated by members of the Leonard family in 1894 to Santa Clara College, now Santa Clara University.  Retreat and relaxation place for Jesuit priests and Jesuit scholastics, who are trainees for the priesthood engaged in teaching. (Ledger maintained by the Leonard family from 1896 to 1906; in the possession of Tom Leonard of Santa Cruz in 2003)

In 1925 the property was sold to David Batchelor, who developed the community of La Selva Beach on it. (Punnett Brothers 1906 map of Santa Cruz County and Clark, pp. 196-197)


St. Michael's Church. Boulder Creek, 1899-2010.

            Its original structure was built "in 1899 and 1900." (1)  The present church was built no earlier than 1968, (2) and it stands adjacent to the lot on which the first church stood. (3)  The address is 13005 Pine St, Boulder Creek 95006, tel. 338-6112. (4)



            1.         San Lorenzo Valley Sun, Sep. 29, 1950

            2.         Valley Press, July 28, 1968

            3.         My observation upon visiting the site in 2005

            4.         2010 White Pages


Moreland Notre Dame School. Watsonville, 1899-2010.

            Now a Catholic, private K-8 school, this opened in 1899 as <Moreland Notre Dame Academy, a boarding school for girls at both the elementary and the secondary levels.  In 1957 the high school graduated its last class and the boarding facility, too, was closed.  In the same year <Mora Central High School, operated by the Catholic Diocese of Monterey, opened at 444 Arthur Road in Watsonville.  Mora struggled with low enrollment, and it, in turn, graduated its last class in 1970.  In the meanwhile Moreland Notre Dame Elementary School has continued to exist at its original location, ("Moreland Notre Dame Academy Centennial 1899-2000:  A Century of Service to the People of Watsonville," monograph maintained in the Pajaro Valley Historical Association, courtesy of the association Archivist.) the address of which is now 133 Brennan St., Watsonville 95075, tel. 728-2051. (2010 White Pages)

#1.2    Roman Catholic church: local assoc. founded after 1900


St. Joseph's Catholic Community. Capitola, 1904-2010.

            The church was established in 1904 at Bay St. and Capitola Ave., but its original structure was razed in 1973 and the present one was then built. (Historic Context Statement for the City of Capitola, pp. 86-87)  It is at 435 Monterey Ave., Capitola 95010, tel. 475-8211. (2010 Yellow Pages)


St. Vincent de Paul Church. Davenport, 1915-2010.

            The church building was dedicated on May 16, 1915. (2004 Calendar, "Davenport Snapshots.  Then and Now." Davenport: Davenport Resource Service Center, 2003).  Its address is 123 Marine View Ave., Davenport 95017, tel. 429-1426. (2010 White Pages)


Catholic Chapel in Scotts Valley. 1917-1941.

            In 1917 Father Joseph McAuliffe, a Catholic pastor in San Francisco, bought 80 acres about a mile north of Scotts Valley, along Mackenzie Creek, which flows into Bean Creek, a tributary of Zayante Creek. (1)  Here McAuliffe had a chapel built, where people of the neighborhood attended Mass for many years. (2)  He also erected at least one classical statue, an ornamental tiled fountain, and a wayside shrine. (3)

            McAuliffe died in 1941, leaving the property and an adjacent 47 acres which he had bought in the meanwhile to a relative. (4)



1.         Santa Cruz County Book of Deeds, Vol. 27.

2.         SC Sentinel-News, Apr. 22, 1951.  I was told in 2008 that a private oral history gathered by a present neighbor also attests to this report.

3.         According to a neighbor who visited the property in 2008 these three structures and remnants of others are still in place, but the chapel and McAuliffe’s house are no longer standing.

4.         Santa Cruz County Records, Vol. 432.


Chaminade School. Soquel, 1923-1983.

            In 1923 the Society of Mary, otherwise known as the Marianist Priests and Brothers, founded by William Joseph Chaminade, bought a tract of land on Paul Sweet Road. (Evening Pajaronian, May 21, 1923)  From 1930 to 1940 this was a high school operated by the society. (Santa Cruz Evening News, June 11, 1940)  From 1950 to 1957 it was called <Chaminade Preparatory School, (Polk 1950-57) but in 1958 it became <Chaminade - Marianist Novitiate, which it remained through 1983, (Polk, 1958-83) and it was also known simply as <Marianist Novitiate. (1966-1979 Yellow Pages)  Its final address in the Polk and telephone directories was 3586 Paul Sweet Road.


St. Joseph's Preparatory Seminary. School, Santa Cruz, 1932-1982.

            The seminary is listed in Polk from 1932 through 1964 and in the White Pages from 1965 through 1982.  The address, according to both, was 544 W. Cliff Dr., Santa Cruz.  Information about subsequent use of the facility can be found below in this section under Shrine of St. Joseph, Guardian of the Redeemer.


St. Mary's of the Palms Catholic School. Glenwood, 1940-1953.

The only testimony I have to the existence of this school is Polk 1940-53.  I suppose it is connected with “St. Mary of the Palms,“ which was incorporated for education, and especially for orphans, in 1946 in Santa Clara County. (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 1242)


Sisters of the Holy Family. Community, Live Oak, 1940-2010.

            In 1940 the Sisters of the Holy Family established in Capitola a convent from which they traveled to do religious education in the area; in 1967 they opened a new convent at 436 Effey St. in Santa Cruz and also had a convent at 1255 38th Ave., Capitola. (SC Sentinel, Feb. 10, 1967)  In 2010 they have a convent at 2-2806 East Cliff Dr., tel. 475-5369, and there is a "Sister Superior" at 1255 38th Ave., tel. 475-1734. (2010 White Pages)


Dominican Hospital. Service org, Santa Cruz County, 1941-2010.

            In 1941 the Dominican Sisters of Adrian, Michigan incorporated <Sisters Hospital, (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 1347) the new name for the West Cliff Drive hospital which they had bought that year as Hanley Hospital. In 1951 the sisters bought Santa Cruz Hospital on Soquel Avenue in the city of Santa Cruz and they operated both hospitals until 1967, when they moved to the new grounds and structures on Soquel Drive, which is actually in the unincorporated area of the county. ( 2010)  The location is 1555 Soquel Dr., Santa Cruz 95062, tel. 462-7700. (2010 White Pages)


Poor Clares Convent. Community, Santa Cruz County, 1941-2010.

            These strictly cloistered nuns bought the Rispin property, nine acres on Wharf Road in Capitola, in 1949 and moved there from Oakland.  In 1956 they completed a new convent at Highway 1 and Seacliff Drive in Aptos, but they sold this property to Dominican Hospital in 1987 and moved to their present location on 30 acres in 1990. (SC Sentinel, Jan. 19, 1949; June 30, 1957; Nov. 9, 1969; Dec. 25, 1989; Apr. 20, 1992; Dec. 4, 2003; also Pajaronian, Apr. 17, 1992)

The sequence is the same, but the dates are different - the Capitola property was bought for the nuns in 1941; the nuns stayed there until 1959 – in the Historic Context Statement for the City of Capitola, pp. 48-49.  Some of the dates, as well as the size of the property (“50 acres”) are different in a March 16, 2010 SC Sentinel article.

The 2006 White Pages listed the Poor Clares Convent, but the White Pages of 2007 and 2008 listed <St. Joseph's Monastery at 1671 Pleasant Valley Road, Aptos 95003, tel. 761-9659 and 761-9481.  The 2007 and 2008 Yellow Pages listed, under "Churches - Catholic, Church of God," St Joseph's Monastery with the 761-9659 telephone number.  When I visited there in December, 2007 the Abbess told me that St. Joseph's Monastery always was the name of this convent of the Poor Clares.  In 2010 the list the convent under “Poor Clares of California” with the address as above and the 761-9659 telephone number.


Salesian Society Theological College. School, Aptos, 1945-1978.

            The Salesian Society [Priests and Brothers] bought the Sesnon Estate, 16 acres, on Soquel Drive in Aptos in 1945 and used it as a theological college.(1)  Officially the school was incorporated as <Salesian College in 1955. (2)  By 1965 the Society had sold the property to the Salesian Sisters, who then used it for aspirants to the sisterhood. (3)  The Sisters moved from it to Aptos in 1978. (See Salesian Sisters' School below)

            A plaque on the facade of the building, as I saw in 2006, states that it was "Salesian College" from 1948 to 1978. This evidently refers to its use as an educational facility by the Salesian men and then the Salesian women.



1.         West Side News, Sep. 1, 1965.

2.         Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 1872.

3.         West Side News, Sep. 1, 1965.


Our Lady Star of the Sea Church. Santa Cruz, 1947-2010.

            The congregation was founded in 1947, and the church was constructed in 1949. ( 2010)  It is at 515 Frederick St., Santa Cruz 95062, tel. 429-1018. (2010 Yellow Pages)


St. Clare’s Retreat House. Conf. center, Soquel, 1950-2010.

            Founded by the Franciscan Missionary Sisters of Our Lady of Sorrows, this facility served as the administrative headquarters of the group, at least for many years, and, it would appear, now, too. (SC Sentinel, Jan. 19, 2010, obituary of former superior general of the group) It was established in 1950 by the Sisters, who were returning from China.  The original buildings were of the Mountain View Ranch Hotel, which had existed from the 1880s to the 1940s. (Koch, Parade of the Past, p. 122 and SC Sentinel, Oct. 21, 1966)  It is at 2381 Laurel Glen Road, Soquel 95073, tel. 423-8093. (2010 Yellow Pages)


Queen of Angels Novitiate.  School, Santa Cruz County, 1952-1953.

            All I know about this evidently Catholic institution is that it was listed in the 1952 and 1953 Yellow Pages at 4573 Branciforte Dr.


St. John's Church. Felton, 1953-2010.

            The structure was built in 1953, although a grass roots movement to establish a parish in Felton had begun in 1943, and by 1952 daily services were being held in temporary quarters. (SC Sentinel, Apr. 5, 1953)  McCarthy, Grizzlies, pp. 90-91, has an alternate version of the formation of the parish, but agrees on the date of the structure.  Its address is 5953 Hwy. 9, Felton 95018, tel. 335-4657. (2010 Yellow Pages)


Assumption Church. Monterey County, 1955-2010.

            A clipping – source lacking – in the Pajaro Valley Historical Association Archives relates that in January, 1955 the rectory was moved from the Watsonville side of the Pajaro River bridge to the other side, where the church was.  The present address of the church is 100 Salinas Road, Watsonville 95076, tel. 722-1104. (2010 Yellow Pages))


Villa St. Joseph. School, Soquel, 1955-1988.

            This facility was at 4556 Paul Sweet Road, Soquel. (Polk 1955-70; listed under "School-Parochial")  From 1961 through 1968 the facility at 4558 Paul Sweet Road was <Marianist [Brothers] Provincialate in the Yellow Pages, and later it was the <Marianist Art Center. (1969-1972 Yellow Pages) In Polk 1980-88 it was the <Holy Trinity Monastery.  I am not sure how all these relate to each other, but I hesitate to make them separate entries. Chaminade School, the Marianist Brothers School, is listed above. 


Camp Don Bosco. Conf center, Bonny Doon, 1956.

            The Salesian Society bought 120 acres at the end of Thayer Road in 1956, intending to use it for a junior seminary, but in reality they used it only as a summer camp before selling it. ("The History of the Sturtevant Property, 700 Thayer Road, Bonny Doon" by Margaret, Bob, and Mary Sturtevant, 1994, cited in Memories of the Mountain, p. 116)


Sisters of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary. Community, Watsonville, 1960.

            Incorporated in 1960 as “<Mother Superior of the Catholic Sisters of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary” at 86 Hecker Pass Road, (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 2265) this had to be a convent, although I have no information concerning the work the sisters did or how long the convent existed.


St. Vincent de Paul Society. Service org, Santa Cruz, 1961-2010.

            The St. Vincent de Paul Society is a world-wide charitable organization founded by Frederick Ozanam in Paris in 1833 (a typographical error in the website has 1883).  It spread to the United States in 1845 and is organized on the parish level into "conferences," which currently number more than 4,500 in the country.  The earliest date I have found for it in the county is 1961, at 315 Main St., Watsonville. (1961 Yellow Pages)  The conferences are grouped into "district councils," and the Santa Cruz District Council, formed in 1969, includes seven conferences.  The Council also has three thrift stores and two resource centers for the homeless and poor. ( 2008)  The 2010 White Pages have telephone numbers, but no addresses for the St. Vincent de Paul Society in Santa Cruz County: 763-0702, Pajaro; 722-3250, South County; and 423-0878, North County Centers.


Salesian Sisters School. Corralitos, 1961-2010.

            The story of this K-8 school begins in 1961 in Aptos, where the Salesian Sisters incorporated a school for high school age aspirants to the sisterhood, <Mary Help of Christians Juniorate at 6412 Soquel Drive, at the present center of the Cabrillo College campus. (1) Beginning in 1974 the school for sisters was located at the Sesnon House, another location now on the campus. (2)  Also in 1974 the Sisters bought the property at 605 Enos Lane in Corralitos, (3) and the following year they incorporated the <Mary Help of Christians Youth Center” at 605 Enos Lane. (4)

            The year 1978 is marked both by the end of the Sisters activity in Aptos (5) and by the establishment of the school in Corralitos. (6)

            The present address of the Sisters' school is 605 Enos Lane, Watsonville 95076, tel. 728-4700. (7)

            For the earlier history of the Aptos Sesnon property see Salesian Society Theological College above.



1.         Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 2393.

2.         SC Sentinel, letter from a reader, March 29, 2007.

3.         SC Sentinel, letter from a reader, March 15, 2007

4.         Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 2393.

5.         Plaque on Sesnon House.

6.         SC Sentinel, March 15, 2007.

7.         2010 Yellow Pages


Good Shepherd Catholic School. Live Oak, 1963-2010.

            Opened in 1963 for children in the mid-county area, it includes elementary and junior high. ( 2010).  It is at 2727 Mattison Lane, Santa Cruz 95062, tel. 476-4000. (2010 Yellow Pages)


Dominican Sisters Provincialate. Community, Santa Cruz, 1964-1970.

            In 1964 the sisters of Dominican Hospital (Dominican Sisters of Adrian, Michigan) bought the property at 434 Highland Avenue to use as their provincial headquarters. (SC Sentinel, Jan. 15, 1964)  They used it as such, but only for a short while, selling it to private parties in 1970. (Communication of Jan. 8, 2005 from John Mahaney, one of the purchasers)


Holy Eucharist Catholic Community Parish. Corralitos, 1968-2010.

            Establishment of the parish was authorized in 1968 and construction plans were approved in 1969. (Pajaronian, June ?, 1969)  The multipurpose building which includes the worship space was dedicated in 1977. (Malmin, Corralitos, p. 119)  It is located at 527 Corralitos Road, Watsonville 95076, tel. 722-5490. (2010 Yellow Pages and 2010)


Catholic Community of San Agustin Parish. Scotts Valley, c1970-2010.

            This parish has been in existence since approximately 1970. (SC Sentinel, Oct. 13, 2005)  The church is located at 257 Glenwood Dr., Scotts Valley 95066, tel. 438-3633. (2010 Yellow Pages)


Fundacion San Pablo de Colores. Conf center, Monterey County, 1979-2010.

            The White and/or the Yellow Pages from 1979 to 2008 listed this facility at 505 San Juan Road, Watsonville, tel. 728-1616.  The SC Sentinel of July 19, 2005 called it <San Pablo de Colores Central Pastoral, "a religious retreat center."  In the 2010 White Pages it is listed under <Federacion San Pablo de Colores. 


St. Francis Catholic Kitchen. Service org, Santa Cruz, 1982-2010.

            Established by Peter Carota in 1982 in a restaurant on Beach Street, later moved to a truck behind a store on the Laurel Street Extension, and, since 1984, on Mora Street, this provider of food and other services has generally been known as the <St. Francis Soup Kitchen. (SC Sentinel, Mar. 20, 1984 and May 5, 2002; also The Observer [Monterey], Aug. 15 & Aug. 22, 1984)  It is at  205 Mora St., Santa Cruz 95060, tel. 459-6712. ( 2010.


Shrine of St. Joseph, Guardian of the Redeemer. Conf center, Santa Cruz, 1983-2010.

            Until 1982 this facility was listed as a seminary, as stated above in this section under St. Joseph's Preparatory Seminary.  In 1983, however, it began to be listed in the Yellow Pages as a shrine. According to the SC Sentinel, May 24, 1993, the structure was erected in 1950 and remodeled to its present form in 1993.  According to Chase, Sidewalk Companion, p. 3, the chapel "was begun in 1952, but was left unfinished until 1992...."  It is located at 544 W. Cliff Dr., Santa Cruz 95060, tel. 471-0442. ( 2010)


Jesus Mary Joseph Home. Service org, Santa Cruz, 1989-2010.

            An outreach program of St. Francis Catholic Kitchen since 1989, this home at 132 Lennox St. is a shelter for women and their children. (SC Sentinel, Aug. 6, 2009)  More information can be had at 2010.


Pajaro Valley Loaves and Fishes. Service org, Watsonville, 1989-2010.

            Currently listed as <Loaves And Fishes, this is primarily a food kitchen for the homeless and the needy. It began in 1989 as a Thanksgiving meal behind St. Patrick's Church. (Pajaronian, Nov. 26, 1992)  Since about 2000 it has been in its present location, a renovated residence.  When I looked at it in 2007 I saw no obvious sign of religious background in front of it or inside the door except the name.

            The address is 150 Second St., Watsonville 95076, and the telephone is 722-4144. (2010 Yellow Pages)


Pinto Lake County Park. Santa Cruz County, 1992-2010.

            In 1992 Anita Contreras was praying in this park near Watsonville when, she related, the Virgin Mary appeared to her in a tree.  There remained after that on the tree a mark resembling the image of the Virgin of Guadalupe.  This has since been considered an unofficial shrine, and it has been visited by large numbers of people. (Pajaronian, Aug. 15, 2001)  The site and the park it is in are on Green Valley Road. The Santa Cruz County Parks website suggests in 2007 "See the location where locals believe the Virgin Mary appeared." ( 2010)  On a visit to the site in December, 2007, I saw many offerings of flowers and religious objects there.


Agnus Dei Christian Book & Gift Store. Service org, Santa Cruz, 1996-2010.

            In existence since 1996, (1996 Yellow Pages) this store has a Catholic focus, as I saw on visits to it in 2004 and 2006.  Previously its location was that of White's Mortuary, also called White's [mortuary] Chapel, (Yellow Pages from 1940 to 1995) although in the 1996 and 1997 Yellow Pages its address was 150 Walnut.  Agnus Dei's address now is 138 Walnut Ave., Santa Cruz 95060, tel. 457-2636. (2010 Yellow Pages)


Siena House Maternity Home. Service org, Santa Cruz, 2000-2010.

            This Catholic sponsored maternity home is located in the former convent adjacent to Holy Cross Church. (SC Sentinel, Apr. 27, 2007 and May 11, 2008)  It is at 108 High St., tel. 425-2229. (2010 White Pages)


St. Francis Central Coast Catholic High School. Santa Cruz County, 2001-2010.

            The school was opened in temporary quarters in 2001.  In 2002 it began operating in its present location, the site of the Salesian Society's school across East Lake Avenue from the original orphanage and school associated with Our Lady Help of Christians Valley Church.  It is administered by the Salesians.  Further information, including its address, 2400 East Lake Ave., Watsonville 95076, and tel., 724-5933, can be found on the website 2010.

#1.3    Recently founded Catholic separatist groups


Liberal Catholic Church. Santa Cruz, 1963-1965.

In 1963 this group held services in the “Chapel of St. Michael, 209 Wilkes Circle or 120 Errett Circle.” (SC Sentinel, Nov. 22, 1963)  According to Polk 1964 the group met in the "Pastor's Study" at 209 Wilkes Circle., but its address in the 1963 and 1965 Yellow Pages was 120 Errett Circle.  The two addresses are a short block apart.

The name "Liberal Catholic Church" belongs historically to a British and American descendant of the "Old Catholic Church" of Holland.  The group was founded in Britain in 1916, and it quickly spread to the United States.  While retaining a Catholic-like creed and liturgy, the church from its beginning was closely identified with Theosophy.  Melton, Encyclopedia *987, *988, and *989, still lists it along with Theosophy in the Ancient Wisdom family, but since 1966 it has been divided into two major groups, one of which, the "Liberal Catholic Church International," does not require Theosophical adherence, although the other, "Liberal Catholic Church, Province of the U. S. A.," does require it.  The emphasis has shifted to practices, such as the ordination of women, and so I have placed these groups in the Liberal family.  The websites of the two branches are 2010 and 2010.


American Catholic Christian Apostolic Church. Santa Cruz County, 1964-2007.

This association was incorporated in Santa Cruz in 1964; its principal office and headquarters was at 1611 Branciforte Dr., Santa Cruz; its president was William Franklin Wolsey. (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 2771)  Wolsey had in 1960 been the first signatory of the articles of incorporation of the United Patriarchate of the Universal Apostolic Church of Life in British Columbia, which was renamed the United Patriarchate of the Holy Catholic Christian Apostolic Church in 1965. (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 3493)

In 1971 Wolsey, who called himself Archbishop, was being sued for manipulating the American organization as a way to direct funds from the Canadian one to his personal benefit. (SC Sentinel, April 29, 1971)

The location of the American Catholic Christian Apostolic Church was a 22 acre property, formerly a campground called Leprechaun Woods. (Cabrillo Times & Green Sheet, April 1, 1971)

The preamble to the articles of incorporation states that as the Catholic Church and the Anglican Church “decided to raise and elevate the Ideals of their respective cultures and ways of social living into the Realm of Spiritual qualification,” the American Catholic Christian Apostolic Church does “declare, that the said Constitution of the United States of America, together with the general Ideals of ‘The American Way of Life,’ shall be part and parcel of these Sacred Church Articles of Incorporation here-in-after set forth in this Divine Charter.”

For many years, at least through 1998, the church was listed in the Yellow Pages under Non-Denominational, and, as late as 2007, it was listed in the White Pages, but it is not listed in either place in 2008.  In 2008, however, a website search for “Recreation and Vehicle Parks & Campsites” leads one to, among other places, the American Catholic Christian Apostolic Church.


Our Mother of Perpetual Help Chapel. Santa Clara County, 2005-2010.

            This chapel and the <St. Aloysius Camp and Retreat Center to which it is attached are facilities of the Society of St. Pius X. ( 2010)

The Society of St. Pius X was founded in 1970 in Switzerland by Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre, who objected to some of the reforms of the Vatican Council II.  Later he distanced himself more and more from the Catholic hierarchy, and in 1988 the Pope excommunicated him and declared the Society of St. Pius X to be schismatic, that is, cut off from the Catholic Church. (Matt C. Abbott, "Schismatic Traditionalists,"  Homiletic and Pastoral Review, Ignatius Press, March, 1999, pp. 55-58, but taken here from 2007)  Additional information on the society and its relation to the Catholic Church, including talks which may lead to the Society’s reassimilation into the Catholic Church, is on the society’s 2010 website.

            Offering "Traditional Latin Mass," the chapel is located at 19101 Bear Creek Rd., Los Gatos 95033, tel. 408-354-7703. ( 2010)


Sophia Catholic Community. Santa Cruz County, 2006-2010.

            "Dedicated to living the Gospel values of compassion, peace and social justice, this group meets in members homes with Roman Catholic woman priest Victoria Rue presiding." (SC Sentinel, April 5, 2008) The Santa Cruz Good Times, July 19-25, 2007, had details.  Additional information is in 2010.

 #1.4   Episcopalian


            The Episcopal Church, until 1967 the "Protestant Episcopal Church," has occupied a unique position among American Christian bodies due to its affinities with Roman Catholicism on the one side and with Protestantism on the other.  It can be classified either way, but conceptually it is more true to its tradition to see it as the peculiar form of the Catholic Church as it was in England in 1534 and as it spread from there.

            In 1849 an Episcopalian parish, the first in California, was established in San Francisco, and a church was built for it in the same year.  William Ingraham Kip, appointed bishop of California in 1853, arrived in San Francisco the following year.  Under his leadership - he was bishop until 1893 - the church expanded, mainly to the south. (Lionel Utley Ridout, Foundations of the Episcopal Church in the diocese of California, 1849-1893. PhD dissertation, University of Southern California, 1953)


All Saints'. Watsonville, 1861-2010.

            In late 1863 or early 1864 Bishop Kip visited some of the his Episcopalian parishes.  "After visiting Santa Clara Kip went for his first visit to Watsonville, a bustling and thriving town of 2000-2500 people which he compared with Petaluma.  He felt that the Church could easily be established in Watsonville, where only the Methodists and Presbyterians had secured a foothold." (William Kip, "Letter" in Spirit of the Missions, XXVIII (January, 1864) pp. 29-31, quoted in Ridout, Foundations, p. 309)

            Episcopalian services were already being held in various locations in Watsonville beginning in 1861 (1).  <Grace Mission, however, was not organized until 1874, (2) and Grace Mission Church was opened in 1876 at E. 3rd St. and Beach St. (3) In 1884 its name was changed to All Saints', and two years later the church building was moved to the corner of Carr and East Beach. (4)  The present structure was inaugurated in 1967, (5) and it is at 437 Rogers Ave., Watsonville 95076, tel. 724-5338. (6)


1.         We are All Saints: the Story of the Episcopal Church in the Pajaro Valley, Watsonville, 1985, p. 11.

2.         Ibid., p. 12.

3.         Ibid., p. 13.

4.         Betty Lewis, Watsonville Yesterday, p. 41.

5.         We are All Saints, pp. 15 and 41.

6.         2010 Yellow Pages.


Calvary Episcopal Church. Santa Cruz, 1862-2010.

            First Episcopalian services in Santa Cruz were in 1862, the church cornerstone was laid in 1864, and the first services were held in it in 1865. ( 2010)

            In the 1880s a school for boys, Quincy Hall, was operated in a manner independent of the Episcopal Church in Santa Cruz, but in connection with it.  Such an arrangement was found in several Northern California cities at that time. (Ridout, Foundations, pp. 482-483)

The existing structure was completed in 1867, (SC Sentinel, Oct. 14, 1951) and it is at 532 Center St., Santa Cruz 95060, tel. 423-8787. (2010 Yellow Pages)


St. John's Episcopal Church. Aptos, c1889-2010.

            The congregation was founded about 1889. (SC Sentinel, July 22, 1979) In 1898 it inaugurated a new  structure, (SC Surf, Aug. 12, 1898)  which is mentioned on page 95 of the Historical Context Statement for the City of Capitola as the only church structure in Capitola surviving from the nineteenth century until the present (2004).  This building is located at 216 Oakland Ave., Capitola. (2008 Yellow Pages)

            In June, 2009 the congregation moved to a new structure in Aptos, (SC Sentinel, June 25, 2009) the location of which is 125 Canterbury Dr., Aptos 95003, tel. 708-2278.  A more proper name of the congregation is <Episcopal Church of St. John the Baptist. (2010 Yellow Pages and 2010)


St. Andrew's.  Ben Lomond, 1899-2010.

The website 2010 states that the church was founded in 1899, and it contains much other information about the history of the church, which is at Riverside Ave. and Glen Arbor Road, Ben Lomond 95005, tel. 336-5994. (2010 Yellow Pages)


Christ Episcopal Mission.  Santa Clara County, 1899-1930s.

            "... in 1899 local residents built Christ Episcopal Mission.  The Episcopal Church building was located across from Schultheis Lagoon at the corner of Santa Cruz Highway (Woodwardia) and Summit Road.  Reverend Tilletson, from Santa Cruz, held services there every three months.  Other ministers came on a routine basis from Los Gatos and other nearby towns to preach there.  In the 1930's church attendance declined and forced the church's closure.  Vandals and tramps used the building until it was torn down." (Stephen Payne, A Howling Wilderness, p. 91.  Additional details are in John Young, Ghost Towns of the Santa Cruz Mountains, pp. 22-23)


Grace Episcopal Church. Boulder Creek, 1906-1923.

The structure was built as an Episcopalian church in 1906, and it later became the First Church of Christ Scientist. ("The San Lorenzo Valley Museum," undated pamphlet published by the Boulder Creek Historical Society at 12547 Highway 9, Boulder Creek, in the former Grace Church building)

The pamphlet cited also corrects the erroneous date of 1885 or 1888 given by some secondary sources as the year of the erection of the building. The history of the building from 1923 on can be found under the entry for the First Church of Christ Scientist in #15.1


St. Philip's. Scotts Valley, 1987-2010.

            Established in 1987, the congregation moved in 1996 to its present structure, a pre-existing building, ( 2010) which is at 5271 Scotts Valley Dr., Scotts Valley 95066, tel. 438-4360. (2010 Yellow Pages)


Good Shepherd Fellowship. Aptos, 2001-2010.

            The Good Shepherd Fellowship is one of 79 California churches of the Anglican Church in North America.  Until 2008 or 2009 the congregation was affiliated solely with the <Anglican Mission in America (now the <Anglican Mission in the Americas), which is a “missionary outreach of the Anglican Church of Rwanda,” but now, 2010, it is listed as a congregation of the much larger <Anglican Church in North America.

            Both Anglican groups represent American Episcopalians who do not agree with the Episcopal Church in the United States and the Anglican Church of Canada, which, they maintain, “have increasingly accommodated and incorporated un-Biblical, un-Anglican practices and teaching.” The salient point of contention regards the open practice of homosexuality by the clergy, and especially by Bishops.  Further information can be had on the website of the Rwandan group, 2010, and on that of the North American group, 2010.

The Good Shepherd Fellowship began to be listed in the Yellow Pages in 2001.  Its services from that year on were held at Mt. Calvary Lutheran Church, 2402 Cabrillo College Dr., Aptos 95063, tel. 430-0152.  The of March, 2010, however, do not have an address, but have, rather, the usual telephone number plus another number, 430-0151, for “Good Shepherd Fellowship of Santa Cruz” at 111 Bean Creek Road #151, Scotts Valley.


#2  Eastern Orthodox (Eastern Liturgical family)


            Following the 1054 division of Christendom into the Church of Rome and that of the four Patriarchates of the East - Constantinople, Antioch, Jerusalem, and Alexandria - the Eastern Churches tended to identify themselves as regional, especially when almost all the physical territory to which they extended, except Russia, came under the dominion of Islamic states.  Their development in the United States has generally been along ethnic lines, although there is a recent trend of people dissatisfied with the Western Liturgical tradition to change to the Eastern.


St. Elias Orthodox Chapel & Shrine. Santa Cruz, 1962-1980.

In 1962 the Eastern Orthodox priest Elias Karim bought this property and used the Kitchen Brothers Temple structures on it as a chapel and shrine dedicated to the Prophet, St. Elias.  Only two years later Father Karim left Santa Cruz, but in 1988 he was still owner of the property, and was trying to sell it. (San Jose Mercury News, July 20, 1988)

The site was listed as St. Elias Orthodox Chapel and Shrine in Polk through 1980; its 1980 address in Polk was 519 Fair Ave.

The entry for the Kitchen Brothers Temple is in  #20.1, under Hindu.


Prophet Elias Greek Orthodox Church. Santa Cruz, 1980-2010.

            This is a parish of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of North and South America, and as such it falls under the Patriarchate of Constantinople. ( 2010)  Information about this Patriarchate is to be found in Melton, Encyclopedia *90.

             "Prophet Elias Greek Orthodox Church of Santa Cruz began very modestly in 1980 with the many Greek families of Santa Cruz County, and the priest and his family who had been assigned to the community, Fr. John and Presbytera Anastasia Karastamatis, along with their two children, Maria and Fotis. Fr. John began Sunday services by borrowing space at Poor Clares, a Catholic church in Soquel. The Greek families' determination to found a church became a reality in 1982, when a building was purchased and converted into Prophet Elias Greek Orthodox Church. That building is where we are today at 223 Church Street." ( 2010)

According to the 2010 Yellow Pages, too, the address of the church is 223 Church St., Santa Cruz 95060, tel. 429-6500.


Sts. Peter and Paul Orthodox Church. Ben Lomond, 1974-2010.

            In the 1970s the Evangelical Orthodox Church was taking form as a group of Protestants who were satisfied neither with Protestantism nor with Catholicism.  Starting as members of the evangelical Protestant movement known as the Campus Crusade for Christ, these people were attracted to the Orthodox view of Christianity. (Melton, Encyclopedia *88)  In 1974 a core group of 18 of them, under the leadership of John Weldon Hardenbrook became in an informal way an Orthodox congregation in the San Lorenzo Valley. ( 2010)  "In June, 1984, four smaller churches (from neighboring communities San Ramon, Felton, Ben Lomond and Santa Cruz) came together to form the <Evangelical Orthodox Church of Santa Cruz.  The combined congregation moved into a newly purchased A-frame building on Highway 9 in Ben Lomond.” ( 2010)  It appears to me that the earlier Ben Lomond location was the Wee Kirk, the former Presbyterian Church, the property of which Saints Peter and Paul still owned in 1994. (see below under #4.1)  The Scotts Valley location would have been, I think, the Evangelical Orthodox Church in Scotts Valley, listed below.  I do not know the Felton location.

            In 1987 the Evangelical Orthodox Church placed itself under the jurisdiction of the Antiochian Orthodox Church in America, which is headquartered in New Jersey. ( 2010)

            The address of the church is 9980 Hwy. 9, Ben Lomond 95005, tel. 336-2228. (2010 Yellow Pages)


Evangelical Orthodox Church of Scotts Valley. 1983-1984.

This congregation was listed in the 1983 Yellow Pages and the SC Sentinel of July 26, 1984 at 50 Janis Way, Scotts Valley.  It clearly merged with other Evangelical Orthodox Churches to form Ss. Peter and Paul Orthodox Church in 1984. (see above, under Sts. Peter and Paul Orthodox Church)


Conciliar Press Orthodox Christian Bookstore. Service org, Ben Lomond, 1984-2010.

            In existence since 1984, (1984 White Pages) this business was formerly listed as a publisher of books and periodicals, "a department of the Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America." ( 2008)  Now, in 2010, it is no longer listed as a publisher on, but it is listed in the 2010 as a bookstore at 10090 Hwy. 9, Ben Lomond, tel. 336-5118.


St. Lawrence Academy. School, Felton. 1990-2010.

            This school was founded in 1990 in Ben Lomond as <Sts. Peter and Paul Academy.  It is now at 6184 Hwy. 9, Felton 95018, tel. 335-0328. ( 2010)  According to the school’s website in 2008 the curriculum extends through 12th grade.


St. Lawrence Orthodox Christian Church. Felton, c1998-2010.

            A number of clergy and laity who left Sts. Peter and Paul Orthodox Church in 1998 regrouped under the jurisdiction of the Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem and founded St. Lawrence.  The story of the division of the congregation is told in 2010.  It can be said in a general way that St. Lawrence is resolutely non-ethnic in spirit.  The church is located at 6180 Hwy. 9, Felton 95018, tel. 335-0300. ( 2010)


St. Silouan Russian Orthodox Monastery, Ben Lomond, c1998-2010.

            Rev. Simeon Berven, one of the original members of the Evangelical Orthodox Church, (see Sts. Peter and Paul Orthodox Church above) and later an original member of St. Lawrence Orthodox Christian Church, retired to St. Silouan. (obituary in SC Sentinel, July 3, 2008)  A staff member at St. Lawrence Church told me in 2008 that the monastery had existed for about ten years. It is located at 1 Brooks Road, Ben Lomond, tel. 336-5886. ( 2010)


#3  Lutheran (Lutheran family)



                        #3.1    Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA)

                        #3.2    Missouri Synod Lutheran

                        #3.3    Various Lutheran


            The reformation of the Western Christian Church which began in Germany in 1519 with Martin Luther gave rise first of all to a church which was called "evangelical," but which later came to bear Luther's own name.  Although Luther's church differed from the traditional Christian body by its insistence on justification by faith rather than works and by its popular appeal to the Bible, it retained many resemblances in liturgy and organization.  It went on to be the official church of most of the German states prior to the unification of Germany.  It also became the official church of the Scandanavian countries.

            Brought to the United States by immigrants, Lutheranism has had numerous variants, the earliest of which derived from the nationality of the immigrants.  Later Lutheran congregegations organized into numerous territorial synods.  Today, however, American Lutherans are mainly found in three groups.  By far the largest of these groups is the ELCA, Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, which was formed in 1988 by the merger of numerous state synods.  The second largest is the Lutheran Church Missouri Synod, which is, generally speaking, more conservative than the ELCA. Both of these groups are represented in Santa Cruz County.  There is no church here of the third largest American Lutheran group, the Wisconsin Synod, the most conservative of the three, although there are two Wisconsin Synod congregations in Santa Clara County. ( 2010­)


#3.1    Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA)


Lutheran Community Church. Watsonville, 1880-2010.

            The congregation was organized in 1880 as the <Danish Evangelical Church of the Pajaro Valley, and its first structure was dedicated in 1889. (SC Sentinel, June 28, 1980)  In 1960 it moved to the Alta Vista site, (SC Sentinel, June 28, 1980) where it is now, 95 Alta Vista Ave., Watsonville 95076, tel. 724-3460. (2010 Yellow Pages)

The names by which this congregation was known varied over the years.  It was the <Danish Lutheran Church at least through 1912. (Thurston 1912-1913)  Polk 1925 and 1950 called it <First Lutheran Church, but Polk 1935 called it Danish Lutheran.  In 1954 it was incorporated as the <First Evangelical Lutheran Church of Watsonville. (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation n. 1801)

The name changes of this congregation accord with the institutional changes in the American Lutheran community.  From 1896 to 1946 the Watsonville congregation was affiliated with a synod called "United Danish Evangelical Church."  In 1946, however, this synod became the "United Evangelical Lutheran Church," which, in 1960, became a component of the "American Lutheran Church," which, in turn, in 1988, became the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, noted above.

            Regarding Danish Lutherans in California, it is useful to know that, "Danish Lutherans, for example, at the turn of the century founded Ferndale in the far north and Solvang in the South, both near the coast." The "for example" here refers to small, homogeneous, rural populations of immigrants. (Eldon G Ernst, Pilgrim Progression, p. 53)

            In 1959 the United Evangelical Lutheran Church, although only one year away from becoming a constituent body of the American Lutheran Church, was still considered a Danish synod, although a small one, and it is interesting to note that the state in which it had its greatest number of members was Wisconsin, with 14,660; followed by Iowa, 14,462; then California with 9,495; followed by Minnesota with 6,852.  The only other state in which it had over two thousand members was Kansas, with 5,933. (Robert C. Wiederaenders, Ed., Historical Guide to Lutheran Church Bodies of North America. St. Louis: Lutheran Historical Conference, 2nd ed., 1998, pp. 39-40)

            The other Scandanavian Lutheran churches, Swedish, Norwegian, Finnish, Norwegian-Danish, and generically Scandanavian, were also found in the state, as were German Lutheran congregations.  In 1916 Pastor Edward M. Stensrud, originally a Norwegian Lutheran, wrote a book which was intended to encourage Lutherans throughout the Eastern States to emigrate to California.  He was particularly concerned to welcome English-speaking Lutherans rather than Lutherans who would speak their former European language in the church congregation.  In his work he devoted three chapters to the history and status of English-speaking Lutheran congregations, especially the prominent one in San Francisco which he himself had founded.  To indicate, however, the distribution of Lutherans, let it suffice to observe that two chapters were on German-speaking congregations, and thirteen were on the various Scandanavian language-speaking ones On page 74 of his book, under the heading "Pastors and Churches of California in connection with the Danish Evangelical Lutheran Church in the United States," Stensrud names no pastors, but he lists the seven Danish-speaking churches, which were in Salinas, Chualar, Watsonville and four other, unnamed, locations. (Edward Martinus Stensrud, The Lutheran Church and California. San Francisco: 1916)


St. Stephen's Lutheran Church. Live Oak, 1954-2010.

             Incorporated in 1954, (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 1805) this congregation appeared in Polk 1954 as <United Lutheran Church at 429 Pennsylvania Ave.  The next year it was at the same address, but it had begun to be called St. Stephen's, and it remained at this address through 1960. (Polk 1955-60)  It moved to its current address in 1961, (Polk 1961ff.) and this is 2500 Soquel Ave., Santa Cruz 95062, tel. 476-4700. (2010 Yellow Pages)  More information can be found on 2010 and 2010.


Christ Lutheran Church of Aptos. 1966-2010.

Incorporated in 1966. (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 2994) this church is on Hwy. 1 at Freedom Blvd. - 10707 Soquel Dr., Aptos 95003, tel. 688-5727. (2010 Yellow Pages)  There is also information in 2010 and 2010.


#3.2    Missouri Synod Lutheran


Messiah Lutheran. Santa Cruz, 1930-2010.

            The congregation was organized in 1930. ( 2010)  It was formerly at 195 Mission St., (Polk 1935 and 1946) and then at 517 Mission St. (Polk 1950 and 1960)  Since 1961 it has been at its current address, (Polk 1961ff.) which is 801 High St., Santa Cruz 95060, tel. 423-8330. (2010 Yellow Pages)


Trinity Lutheran Church. Watsonville, 1931-2010.

            The congregation was organized in 1931. ( 2010)  It was formerly at 12 Brennan St., (Polk 1946) and 303 Van Ness Ave., Watsonville, (Polk 1955 and 1960) or 301 Van Ness Ave., (Polk 1964) but was at its present address by 1967, (Polk 1967) and this is 175 Lawrence Ave., Watsonville 95076, tel. 724-0176. (2010 Yellow Pages)


Mt Calvary Lutheran Church. Soquel, 1965-2010.

            This congregation was organized in 1965. ( 2010)  The church has been in the same location from the beginning according to church members, but the address was 2601 Park Ave. in 1984, (SC Sentinel, July 26, 1984) and it is now 2402 Cabrillo College Dr., Soquel 95073, tel. 475-6962. (2010 Yellow Pages)


#3.3    Various Lutheran


Mount Cross Lutheran Bible Camp. Conf center, Ben Lomond, 1948-2010.

            On 102 acres on Manson Creek, it was inaugurated in 1948. (Clark, Santa Cruz County Place Names, p. 222)  Its website, 2010, gives its address as 7795 Hwy. 9, Ben Lomond, tel. 336-5179, and states that it is owned and operated by the Lutheran Congregations of Northern California and Nevada.  Now known as <Mount Cross (Outdoor) Ministries of Northern California, it is listed in 2010, but I do not find it in the 2010 White or Yellow Pages.


Good Shepherd of the Valley Lutheran Church. Ben Lomond, 1964-1979.

This congregation held worship as early as February, 1964 in the Felton Community Hall. (Valley Press, Feb. 19, 1964)  Subsequently it met at Mt. Cross Lutheran Camp for a year and one-half, but it began to worship in the new structure of its own at 550 Hwy. 9, Ben Lomond in 1968. (Valley Press, Mar. 6, 1968 and Dec. 18, 1968)  It remained there through 1979. (1979 Yellow Pages)


Lutheran Campus Ministry. Service org, Santa Cruz, 1970-1987.

            In the Yellow Pages of 1970 and subsequent years this has a UCSC campus address, but it is listed at 350 Mission St. in the 1983 and subsequent Yellow Pages.


Light of Life Lutheran Church. Scotts Valley, c1985-2003.

            Having existed since approximately 1985, the congregation was disbanded in 2003.  Its  building was sold then and was expected to become the Scotts Valley Community Center. (SC Sentinel, Sep. 14, 2003)


#4     Presbyterian and Congregational (Reformed-

         Presbyterian family)



                        #4.1    Presbyterian

                        #4.2    United Church of Christ

                        #4.3    Congregational

                        #4.4    Reformed Church in the United States


            The original, early sixteenth century wave of Christian reform on the continent of Europe consisted not only of the Lutheran group, but also of the Calvinistic, or "Reformed,"  which emphasized the notions of the election of the individual by God and of a tightly knit congregation with strict public morality.  Although Calvin himself established a theocracy in Geneva, his Christian worldview as it spread throughout northern and middle Europe, the British Isles, and the United States, emphasized the local congregation rather than the religion of the state.  It took the forms of the Reformed Church in the Netherlands, the Huguenots in France, and the Presbyterians in Scotland, and it was the faith of the North American Pilgrims. 


#4.1    Presbyterian


            Presbyterianism established itself in the United States with English, Scottish, and Irish immigrants early in the 17th century, and it went westward with their descendants.  It took divergent forms, especially being divided by Civil War allegiances, but in 1983 its largest bodies, both North and South, united institutionally to form the "Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.)."  (Melton, Encyclopedia *167)  All existing Presbyterian congregations in Santa Cruz County are affiliated with the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) unless otherwise noted below.


United Presbyterian Church of Watsonville. 1860-2010.

            This congregation dates its origin from 1860 and its first church structure from 1863.  From then until the present it has been at the same location although it was greatly altered in 1888 and was totally replaced in 1970. (Lewis, Watsonville Yesterday, p. 97)  It is at 112 East Beach St., Watsonville 95076, tel. 724-4737. (2010 Yellow Pages)


First Presbyterian Church. Santa Cruz, 1889-2010.

            Founded in 1889, the congregation met in rented locations until 1891, when it bought the Unity Church building, which it moved to Pacific Ave. and Cathcart St.  In 1937 it moved to its present structure, (SC Sentinel, June 22, 1979) which is at 350 Mission St., Santa Cruz 95060, tel. 423-8770. (2010 White Pages)

Additional historical information can be found in Francis, Santa Cruz County, p. 23; and Koch, Parade of the Past,  p. 32.  Koch's dates differ from those in Francis and the Sentinel.

For the reason why the Presbyterian Church did not organize in Santa Cruz as early as 1857 go to #4.2, the First Congregational Church, Santa Cruz.


Boulder Creek Presbyterian Church. 1890-1909.

            The congregation was organized in 1890 and built its first church structure in 1891.  This burned down the same year and was replaced by a new one, still in 1891. (Mountain Echo, Jan. 9, 1897)

When the second building burned down, in 1909, it was not replaced, (Mountain Echo, Feb. 20, 1909) and there is no Presbyterian Church in Boulder Creek now.


First Community Church of Ben Lomond. 1891-1980.

            "James P. Pierce, head of the Pacific Lumber Company, donated land for a church in the late 1870s.  He specified that it should be a place where anyone might worship, regardless of denomination.  After a few years Pierce decided that since no regular services were being held at the community church, he would sell it.

"A Presbyterian, Mrs. Corbett, donated $400 for the purchase and others contributed a like amount.  The small group of Presbyterians struggled to convince a pastor to serve them, finally succeeding in 1891 when the Rev. G. A. Mitchell became the first pastor of the reorganized church.  According to The Mountain Echo of March 25, 1911 services, Sunday school, and Young Peoples' Christian Endeavor were held every Sunday from April 1 to October 1 in the <Ben Lomond Presbyterian Church.

"For many years Ben Lomond and Felton shared a pastor.  The San Jose Presbytery in 1948 decided the two congregations should be separate, so the Ben Lomond group returned to the process of trying to convince a minister to stay in the small community.  Because of the many Scots who lived in the area, the congregation changed the church's name to <Wee Kirk of Ben Lomond." (McCarthy, Grizzlies, p. 89)  According to McCarthy the renaming occurred in 1949. The legal change, however, was in 1959. (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 195) The name Wee Kirk continued to be applied to this church through 1980, (1980 Yellow Pages) although it was also known as the <Community Church in Ben Lomond. (Polk 1940 through 1958)  In 1964 the Yellow Pages included it under United Presbyterian Church, but it went under the heading "Non-Denominational" in the Yellow Pages, 1976 through 1980, and the 1977 Yellow Pages also listed it as <Valley Christian Church under the heading "Churches - Christian."

In 1994 the church property was owned by Saints Peter and Paul Orthodox Church. (McCarthy, Grizzlies, p. 89)  I observed in 2005 that its building, which is at 9500 Central Ave., corner of Main St. was well-maintained and it housed a business establishment with an historical plaque stating that it had been built "ca 1890."


Felton Presbyterian Church.  1891-2010. 

            A Presbyterian congregation was organized in Felton in 1891, and by 1893 it had a structure on the corner of Felton-Empire Grade and Gushee Street.  In 1954 the congregation moved to its present location on Highway 9, and the older building became a public library. (McCarthy, Grizzlies, pp. 89-90  The church's address is 6090 Hwy. 9, Felton 95018, tel. 335-6900. (2010 Yellow Pages)  Additional information can be found in 2010.


Wright's Presbyterian Church. Santa Clara County, 1893-?.

            "Union services and Sunday School meetings were held in 'The Chapel' on J. Birney Burrell's ranch.  Later services were held in the Burrell School until the Wright's Presbyterian Church was built across the street at the foot of Loma Prieta Avenue in 1893.  Reverend Mitchel founded both the Wright's Church and the Skyland Presbyterian Church (in 1887)." (Stephen Payne, A Howling Wilderness; The Summit Road of the Santa Cruz Mountains 1850-1906, p. 89)

            “The Presbyterian Church on Wright’s Ridge, is handsomely furnished and finished, and was built at a cost of $4,500.  The Pastor if Rev. Rich.” (Sunshine, Fruit and Flowers, A Souvenir of The San Jose Mercury, San Jose: San Jose Mercury Publishing and Printing Co., 1889, p. 194)

            See the Skyland Congregational Church below for Rev. Mitchel's other church.


Westview Presbyterian Church. Watsonville, 1898-2010.

            This congregation was founded in 1898 as the <Methodist Japanese Mission at 161 Main St.  In 1902 it had its first church structure, a rented house, at 134 Kearney St.  A year later Presbyterian and Methodist leaders came to a practical missionary agreement: "It was decided that all future evangelism among the Japanese in the Monterey and Santa Cruz counties would be handled by the Presbyterian denomination and the San Jose area by the Methodist denomination." (Westview Presbyterian Church 90th Anniversary  1898-1988, monograph, published evidently in Watsonville, p. 3)

            In 1910 the congregation was incorporated as the <Japanese Presbyterian Church of Watsonville, (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 566), and in the following year a new church was built for it at 214 Union St.  This building remained in service until 1930. (ibid., p. 5)  Between 1925 and 1930 the structure was sold to the Salvation Army, and in 1930 a new church was built at 118 First St. (ibid., p. 6).  In 1954 ground was broken for a new building on the same site. (ibid., p. 9)

            The church is at 118 First St., Watsonville 95076, tel. 724-6222. (2010 Yellow Pages)


Mount Hermon Christian Conference Center. 1906-2010. 

            At the Glenwood Encampment and Conference in July, 1905 religious leaders, mainly Presbyterian, decided to go about founding a non-denominational "permanent assembly place in a good vacation center," like those in Northfield, Massachusetts and Winona, Indiana.  By December of that year the property had been bought and the Mt. Hermon Association had been incorporated.  The sale of lots for those who wished to live there was temporarily halted in 1906 because of the earthquake, but rebounded in the same year. (Kay Goodnason, Rings in the Redwood.  The Story of Mount Hermon. Mount Hermon CA: Mount Hermon Association, 1972, pp. 4-8)

Furthermore, 2010 states that it was the "first Christian camp west of the Mississippi," founded in 1906 upon the "seed idea" of Dwight L. Moody, and "its original program and facilities were influenced by the conference center in the east founded by him."  From its beginning Mount Hermon has not been organizationally Presbyterian, but I place it here because of the way it was founded. Its address is Conference Dr., Mount Hermon 95041, tel. 335-4466. (2010 Yellow Pages)


Filipino (Presbyterian). Watsonville, 1936.

According to Polk 1936 this church was at 75 Marchant, Watsonville.


Trinity Presbyterian Church. Santa Cruz, 1937-2010.

            Growing out of the First Presbyterian Church in 1937, this congregation built a structure in 1938 at Morrissey Blvd. and Water St.  This building was razed, and in the early 1950s the congregation bought the former Latter Day Saints church building on Melrose. (SC Sentinel, Aug. 5, 1988)  Polk 1940 - 1960 lists the Morrissey Blvd. address, although Polk 1964 has the present address, which is 420 Melrose Ave., Santa Cruz 95062, tel. 423-8995. (2010 Yellow Pages and 2010)

            See #12.1 Unitarian Universalist for the clarification that the first Trinity Presbyterian Church building was the original Unity Hall, which had been moved to Morrissey Blvd. and Water St., and see #13.1 Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints for the clarification that the Latter-day Saints moved out of the Melrose Ave. structure in 1962.


Chapel Hill United Presbyterian Church. Watsonville, 1952-1967.

            The congregation, which was on Arthur Road, corner of Sonoma Road, was formed in 1952 by dissident members of the (United) Presbyterian Church of Watsonville and was dissolved in 1967 when the rift was healed. At that time it was sold to the Southern Baptists [and became the Arthur Road Baptist Church].(Lewis, Watsonville Yesterday, p. 97)


Orthodox Presbyterian Church. Live Oak, 1958-2002.

            The Orthodox Presbyterian Church was formed as a national Fundamentalist Presbyterian denomination in 1936. (Mead, Handbook, p, 251)

The Santa Cruz congregation, incorporated in 1958, (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 2379) was located in 1959 at 2501 Porter St., Soquel, (Polk 1959) and appears to have moved from the Soquel address to 429 Pennsylvania Ave., Santa Cruz in 1961, (Polk 1961) and then, in 1969 or 1970, to 2245 Capitola Road, where it remained until 1996. (Polk 1970 through 1988, White Pages 1989 through 1996)  By 1980, according to Polk, it had been renamed the <Westminster Presbyterian Church, and in 1996 it was called the <Living Hope Church. (1996 White Pages)  From 1997 through 2002 it was the Living Hope Church, but its address was 3673 Portola Dr., which was in the El Rancho shopping Center. (1997-2002 White Pages)


Presbyterian Church Bonny Doon. 1959-2010.

            The Presbyterian Board of Missions in 1959 sent a retired pastor to begin holding services in a private home in Bonny Doon.  In 1961 the congregation was formally recognized and it dedicated its present small church in what was a private garage. (The Ladies of Bonny Doon Club, Memories of the Mountain, pp. 111-114 and SC Sentinel, Nov. 6, 1961)  It is at 7065 Bonny Doon Road, Santa Cruz 95060, tel. 426-6858. (2010 Yellow Pages)


St. Andrew Presbyterian Church. Aptos, 1967-2010.

            This congregation appears for the first time in Polk 1967, where it is called <St. Andrew United Presbyterian Church, and it is at 6790 Soquel Dr.  It is now at 9850 Monroe Ave., Aptos 95003, tel. 688-4211. (2010 Yellow Pages)


Korean Central Presbyterian Church of Santa Cruz. Capitola, 1993-2010.

This has been in the Yellow Pages since 1993, and according to the 2010 Yellow Pages, its address is 4575 Capitola Road, Capitola 95010, tel. 476-8291. The current listing is not under Presbyterian (U.S.A.).


Presbyterian Hispanic Church. Watsonville, 2000-2008.

This was at the same address as the First Presbyterian Church in Watsonville, 112 E. Beach St., but telephone number 728-8653. (2000 through 2007 Yellow Pages)


#4.2    United Church of Christ


The United Church of Christ was established in 1961 through the merger of two religious bodies, the Congregational and Christian Churches and the Evangelical and Reformed Church.


The Congregational and Christian Churches had been established in 1931 by the merger of two church bodies.  One, the Congregational Church, dated back to the Puritans.  Additional details about it will be found below, in #4.3 Congregational.  The other component consisted of some congregations of the Christian Church, a post-Revolutionary War movement of return to Christian origins. I have no evidence that there were Santa Cruz County congregations of the Christian Church which entered the 1931 union. For more about other Santa Cruz Christian Church bodies which did not merge in 1931 with the Congregational Church see below, #9.7 Christian Church/Church of Christ

The Evangelical and Reformed Church had come into existence in 1934 through the merger of the Reformed Church in the United States, which had been established among German immigrants in 1725, with the Evangelical Synod of North America, which itself had originated as a merger of churches in Prussia and which took form in the United States in 1849. One Santa Cruz congregation of the Reformed Church will be listed below in #4.4 Reformed Church in the United States.  I do not find evidence that the Evangelical Synod of North America was ever represented in Santa Cruz County.

Melton, Encyclopedia *177 and Mead, Handbook of Denominations in the United States, pp. 289-299 present a clear and concise account of this progression of mergers.

As Melton observes (loc. cit.), the United Church of Christ is probably the closest to a general Christian and ecumenically-minded Protestant church in the United States, bearing strong characteristics of independent congregationalism and resting on a peculiarly American version of the Calvinistic worldview.


Santa Cruz congregations of the United Church of Christ are:


First Congregational Church, Santa Cruz. 1852-2010.

            Founded in 1852 as the 4th Congregational church in California, it was formally organized in 1857.  Its first structure was on Church Street, dating to 1858, and it moved to a new building at Center and Lincoln Streets in 1890, and then to its present site in 1959.  The congregation is affiliated with the Northern California/Nevada Conference of the United Church of Christ. (A Century of Christian Witness: History of First Congregational Church, Santa Cruz, California. Santa Cruz: Church Historical Committee, 1963)  It was originally incorporated in 1867 and it changed its corporate name to United Church of Christ in 1966. (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation, no. 21) Additional information can be found in 2010.

            A Century of Christian Witness, p. 35, quotes from the church's historical committee of 1897, telling why it was Congregational, not Presbyterian:

            "At this meeting [of 1857] the question of organizing a Church was settled, and also its form.  All were agreed as to the need of organizing, but the vote stood eight to eight for a Presbyterian and a Congregational Church.  It was then proposed by the Presbyterians, at the suggestion of  William Anthony, that a Congregational Church be organized with a Presbyterian Confession of Faith, which was agreed to, and the First Congregational Church was born...."

            Another item from A Century of Christian Witness, p. 57, is that "Through Radio Station KSCO, Mr. Cunningham [Rev. Ed Cunningham, Pastor from 1948 to 1955] conducted a radio service Sunday mornings, with marked success."

            The church is now at 900 High St., Santa Cruz 95060, tel. 426-2010. (2010 Yellow Pages)


Skyland Church. Santa Cruz County, 1880-2010.

There was a Presbyterian congregation in the Santa Cruz Mountains Summit Area meeting in a local school beginning in 1880, and work toward a church building for it commenced in 1887. (1)  In 1890 the congregation was incorporated as the <Highland Presbyterian Church. (2) The building was completed in 1891 and was used for some years. (3)  In 1946 it was incorporated as <Skyland Community Church, (4) although the way the newspaper put it, in 1949, after 40 years of disuse, it was reconstituted as the Skyland Community Church. (5)  In 1951 it was received into the Santa Clara Association of Congregational Churches. (6)  In 1957 it was incorporated as the <Skyland Community Congregational Church. (7)  Still called the Skyland Community Church, it is affiliated with the United Church of Christ. (8)

The church is located at 25100 Skyland Road, Los Gatos 95033 (corner of Miller Road, five miles east of Highway 17), tel. 408-353-1310. (9)



1.         Stephen Payne, A Howling Wilderness: The Summit Road of the Santa Cruz Mountains 1850-1906, p. 89.

2          )(Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 185)

3.         Margaret Louise Rapp Tarquinio, Mama's Memoirs: Growing Up in the Santa Cruz Mountains, p. 66.

4          Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 1442.

5.         Los Gatos Times - Saratoga Observer, July 30, 1959.

6.         Koch, Parade of the Past, p. 136

7.         Santa Cruz County Articles in Incorporation no. 1442.

8.         SC Sentinel, March 18, 2006.

9. 2010.


Congregational Chinese Mission. Santa Cruz, 1881-1920.

            "The 'Chinese Mission' of Santa Cruz was organized by Mrs. Anna H. Willet, the wife of the pastor of this [Santa Cruz Congregational] Church, May 1, 1881...." (A Century of Christian Witness, p. 39)  Also known as the <Congregational Association of Christian Chinese, its structure stood in the Santa Cruz Chinatown for 25 years. (Koch, Parade of the Past, p. 215)  "The feasts held in the Congregational Chinese Mission were ended when the building was torn down in 1920...." (Sandy Lydon, Chinese Gold; The Chinese in the Monterey Bay Region, Capitola, California, Capitola Book Company, 1985, p. 439)


La Selva Beach Community Church. 1951-2010. 

This congregation was incorporated in 1951. (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 2358)  Presumably it is the same as the <La Selva Community Church of Polk 1973.  It is at 306 Playa Bd., Watsonville 95076, tel. 688-4033. (2010 Yellow Pages)


#4.3    Congregational


Congregationalism in general, of course, involves autonomy of the local group based on a high degree of trust in it.  American Congregationalism came with the Pilgrims and was Calvinistic in its worldview.  It soon began to foster education, and to it we owe both Harvard and Yale, which were founded so that there could be an educated clergy.  As the American Protestant environment became more and more one of denominations, pure Congregationalism suffered, and it also lost many of its liberal members, who went over to Unitarianism.  The spirit of Congregationalism lives on in the United Church of  Christ, but there were local Congregational churches that existed only before the United Church of Christ was formed, and there is one which did not join it.  They are:


Congregational Church of Soquel. 1868-2010.

            The Soquel Congregational Church was incorporated in 1868 as the Religious Society of the Congregational Church of Soquel. (Santa Cruz County Articles of Inforporation no. 32)

            Principal events in its history are:

            1868  Sunday school and prayer meetings started in Soquel as a "mission" of the Congregational Church of Santa Cruz.

            1869 Church erected and inaugurated.

            1870 "At a regular meeting of the church, it was voted to change the Confession of Faith to the form given in the first model in the second edition of the hand book (sic) of Congregational Churches of California."

            1924 Incorporated as the Congregational Church of Soquel.

            1957 The majority of those present voted to accept the Basis of Union of the organizing  plan of the United Church of Christ.  (This did not imply acceptance of the union.)

            1963 At the annual meeting the vote was 15 "for continuing indefinitely as an independent Congregational Christian Church without any denominational afffiliations," 107 "for continuing as a Congregational Christian Church with membership in the National Association of Congregational Christian Churches," 24 "for moving in the direction of membership in the United Church."

            1964  The congregation voted to accept an invitation "to become a member of the California Association of Congregational Christian Churches."

            (The above information is from The Story of the Little White Church in The Vale; Soquel Congregational Church, 1964. Authorship not acknowledged.  This work is not paginated, and is written by a "we," who, however, state at the end that "The data contained herein has (sic) been taken from the records of the church and we are indebted to Mrs. Myra Archibald, in whose style much of this story has been reproduced.")  The church is located at 4951 Soquel Dr., Soquel 95073, tel. 475-2867. (2010 Yellow Pages)


Congregational Church of Corralitos.  1884-1890s?

            The First Congregational Society began construction of the church on or near present day 19 Eureka Canyon Road in 1883 and dedicated it in 1884.  By 1901 it was said that they still owned the building, but had not held services there for many years. (Malmin, Corralitos, p. 110)


Congregational Church of Bonny Doon. 1894-1920s?

According to the SC Surf for March 9, 1889, as reported in The Ladies of Bonny Doon Club, Memories of the Mountain, p. 116, two ministers were assigned to organize a Congregational church in Bonny Doon.  Whether or not they succeeded at that time, the SC Surf for July 10, 1894 reported that "Ten of the Endeavorers from the Congregational church of this city went to Bonny Doon Sunday morning and held service for the purpose of organizing a Christian Endeavor society....  The society of the Congregational church of Bonny Doon starts out with a good prospect and some splendid workers and a membership of eleven active and six associate members."

In 1905 the Rev. Phelps R. Adams, a resident of Bonny Doon "established a Congregational Church in Bonny Doon, holding services in the schoolhouse built on land donated by Ormond Jenne." (Memories of the Mountain, p. 75)  This schoolhouse was located "just above the intersection of Pine Flat and Martin Road." (Memories of the Mountain, p. 96)

Whatever the relation between these three events was, Rev. Adams became the pastor in 1905. (Memories of the Mountain, p. 116)  He was pastor there "for many years," and he lived until 1932, passing his final years in Santa Cruz. (Santa Cruz Sentinel, Apr. 29, 1932, as reported in Robert L. Nelson: Old Soldier.  The Story of the Grand Army of the Republic in Santa Cruz County, California. Santa Cruz: Museum of Art and History, 2004)


#4.4    Reformed Church in the United States


As stated above in the introduction to the United Church of Christ, its Evangelical and Reformed Church component consisted of two mainly German traditions which merged in 1934.  The one, the "Reformed Church in the United States," traced its origin to 18th century immigrants from the German Palatinate (region along the middle Rhine), the so-called "Pennsylvania Dutch."  It was represented in Santa Cruz by:


German Evangelical Church. Santa Cruz, 1912.

This group met in Arion Hall on Front St. (Thurston 1912-1913)


#5     Pietist-Methodist (Pietist-Methodist family)



                        #5.1    Methodist

                        #5.2    Free Methodist

                        #5.3    African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church

                        #5.4    German Methodism

                        #5.5    Scandinavian Pietism


            Pietism arose in seventeenth century Europe as a reaction against the rigidity of doctrine and practice which was creeping into Protestant bodies.  Pietists did not break with the Protestant traditions, but they organized themselves with less structure and formality.  The three main branches of Pietism are the English ("Methodism"), the Scandinavian, and the continental European, the last of these never having been represented in Santa Cruz, as far as I know.


#5.1    Methodist


Originating in England in the late 1720s, Methodism came to the United States in the 1730s.  With a Church of England background, a non-Calvinistic worldview, an emphasis on helping and evangelizing the poor, and the extensive use of itinerant preachers, Methodism in the U. S. was admirably suited to be in the forefront of Protestantism in the West, and it is typical that the first Protestant congregation in Santa Cruz, the only one to exist before California became a state of the Union, was Methodist.

            After various separations, especially between North and South, the larger number of Methodist bodies in the United States, including the so-called "German Methodists," joined in 1968 to form the United Methodist Church.

            Bibliography:  C. V. Anthony: Fifty Years of Methodism: A History of the Methodist Episcopal Church Within the Bounds of the California Annual Conference From 1847 to 1897. San Francisco: Methodist Book Concern, 1901.  The author, Charles Volney Anthony, was a Methodist Minister and the younger brother of Elihu Anthony, who figured in the founding of Methodism in Santa Cruz.  C.V. gives some details about himself on pp. 23, 74, 159, 172, 341, 362, 373, 388, and 432.


United Methodist Church, Santa Cruz. 1848-2010

            This was the first Protestant church in Santa Cruz and the third Methodist Church in all of California.  It dates from 1848, when the newly arrived Elihu Anthony, who had been a pastor in New York, became its "preacher."   In 1850 the congregation had its first church structure and its first resident pastor, James W. Brier. (Anthony, Fifty Years of Methodism, pp. 14-15)

            A noteworthy occurrence of Christian brotherhood - although with a curious twist - took place when Elihu Anthony arrived in Santa Cruz.  It is narrated on p.14 of Anthony, Fifty Years of Methodism:

            "Hearing great praise of Santa Cruz, both on account of its climate and productiveness, Anthony decided to make it his home.  He reached the place about the first of January, 1848.  He came with his traveling outfit, and began life in the place where he was to spend most of his days, by camping on the Plaza.  The weather was inclement and life in a tent disagreeable, especially to the young mother and two small children.  Under these circumstances the Spanish Padre showed them no small kindness.  He pointed them to a house belonging to the church, where they could find shelter from the storm.  Anthony, anxious not to receive favors under a misapprehension, frankly told him that he was a protestant preacher, and that he expected to hold meetings in the near future.  This, however, made no difference to the priest, who not only continued to urge them to accept his offer, but expressed himself gratified that a protestant preacher had arrived, saying that he hoped the protestants might be made better for his labors.  There was great need of it, he said, as they had morally corrupted his own people."

            More on Elihu Anthony can be found on pp. 17-23 of his brother's history.

            About 1851 the Methodist Church established three "Academies" in California.  One was in San Jose, but moved to Stockton, where it remains today as the University of the Pacific.  The others were in Sacramento and Santa Cruz. Neither lasted long. (Anthony, Fifty Years of Methodism, p. 78-79, which also names the teachers in Santa Cruz)

            The first Methodist church building stood at the corner of Mission and Green Streets. The congregation rebuilt the church in 1862, but in 1891 it moved to the Church St. structure, which had been vacated by the Congregational Church the preceding year.  In 1914 it erected in the same location a larger building, which it razed in 1965 after moving in 1963 to its new church at the present address. (Some of these details are in Anthony, pp. 15-16, but they can be found more extensively here and there, along with other information, in Koch, Parade of the Past, pp. 29-30; Elliot, Santa Cruz County, p. 69; SC Sentinel, Aug. 9, 1963; San Jose Mercury News, May 18, 1993; and 2010.)

The address is now 250 California Ave., Santa Cruz 95060, tel. 429-6800. (2010 Yellow Pages)


First United Methodist Church, Watsonville. 1852-2010.

            1852, the year of the first Methodist service in Watsonville, is taken as the founding date of this congregation. Its first church structure was built in 1853 on Main Street (then Pajaro Street).  Very soon there were two Methodist churches, one North and the other South.  The latter, however, sold its structure to the North one and ceased to exist in 1862.  In 1874 the congregation dedicated a new church at the corner of Rodriguez and West Beach, where it was still to be found in 1946, although in Polk 1946 its address was 303 Van Ness Ave.  It moved again, to Stanford Street, where its present structure was dedicated in 1954. (Lewis, Watsonville Yesterday, p. 65)

            Note the listing of the <Methodist Episcopal Church-South in the Pacific Sentinel of March 28, 1861.

            All the above information can be found in detail in The First United Methodist Church, also entitled Methodists of the pajaro valley: keeping hearts "strangely warmed," since 1852,  Watsonville, 1992.  This monograph, however, states that the first structure was built in 1854 and that the Methodist āhurch South structure was incomplete when it was bought.

            There are additional details about Methodism in Watsonville, including its outreach in Monterey, in Anthony, Fifty Years of Methodism, pp. 204 and 212-213.

            The address of the congregation is now 229 Stanford St., Watsonville, 95076, tel. 724-4434. (2010 Yellow Pages)


Boulder Creek United Methodist Church. 1865-2010

            Methodist meetings were held in Boulder Creek as early as 1865, but the first Methodist church there was built in 1874.  When it burned down, in 1885, it was replaced by a second structure, which in turn burned down in 1907, and the present structure was built in 1908.  Both conflagrations were attributed to opponents of the temperance advocates who labored to eliminate drinking and prostitution. (The United Methodist Church – Boulder Creek, California – Centennial Souvenir, 1974 pamphlet, a copy of which can be found in the Boulder Creek Public Library)

            In the first years of this Methodist congregation its church was said, properly speaking, to be in Lorenzo, "Boulder Creek" being the nearby post office.  It lost membership in about 1890, when Presbyterian Churches were established in both Boulder Creek and Felton. (Anthony: Fifty Years of Methodism, pp. 340-341)  This Methodist congregation was in fact incorporated as the <Lorenzo Methodist Episcopal Church in 1892. (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 113)

            The present church is at 12855 Hwy. 9, Boulder Creek 95006, tel. 338-6232. (2010 Yellow Pages)


Corralitos Methodist Episcopal Church. 1885.

            The Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 127 are distinctly for this church, and not for the Corralitos Free Methodist Church, which is found below, in #5.2.  I have no evidence that the Corralitos Methodist Episcopal Church went beyond the legal incorporation stage.  Not to be counted in totals.


Methodist Church in Soquel. 1888-1915. 

            "Soquel was supplied this year [1888] by John Clark, a local elder.  Services were held regularly in the early fifties.  They were generally conducted by local preachers, and the place of meeting was a school house.  The organization of a Congregational Church led to the abandonment of the place by the Methodists.  C. D. Cushman, formerly a member of conference, happening to reside in the place, resolved to have his own Church represented in Soquel.... [He succeeded, and the situation remained much as it had been.]  ...  In 1896 it was called Soquel and Valencia."  It still had members in 1897. (Anthony: Fifty Years of Methodism, p. 419)

            A detail which can be added to the above account is that the congregation was incorporated in 1892 as the <Soquel Methodist Episcopal Church. (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 204)

            Finally a church was built, and it remained in use until 1915, when it was abandoned, torn down, and the wood was used in the construction of the relocated Pennsylvania Avenue Methodist Church in Santa Cruz. (SC Sentinel, Dec. 8, 1957)


Grace Methodist Church. Santa Cruz, 1890-2000.

            About 1890 "... a lot was purchased on Pennsylvania Avenue in East Santa Cruz, and a chapel erected thereon.  A Sunday school and occasional services are maintained there [about 1900]." (1)  Use of the structure was, in fact, suspended from 1900 to 1905, but the congregation was revitalized and formally organized in 1907. (2)  At that time its name officially became the <Pennsylvania Avenue Methodist Church. (3)  In 1914 the congregation moved to Soquel Avenue and erected a new structure. (4)  This, however, was destroyed by fire on October 8, 2000, (5) and has not been rebuilt. (6)

The name of the church was changed to <East Side Methodist Episcopal Church in 1922. (7)  The address was “Soquel and Cayuga” in the Santa Cruz County Directory, 1923-24 and in Polk 1925, and 375 Soquel Ave. in Polk 1930 and 1946.  In 1946 its name was changed to Grace Methodist Church, (8) and in Polk 1950 its address was 1028 Soquel Ave.  In Polk 1970 it began to be called <Grace United Methodist Church.



1.         Anthony: Fifty Years of Methodism, p. 16.

2.         SC Sentinel, Dec. 8, 1957.

3.         Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 477.

4.         SC Sentinel, Dec. 8, 1957. Curiously, the Santa Cruz Historic Building Survey, Vol. 1, p. 124, states that the new church was built around 1925.

5.         SC Sentinel Oct. 9, 2000.

6.         My observation, 2010.

7.         Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 477.

8.         Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 477.


Green Valley Methodist Episcopal Church. Watsonville, 1890.

            The only evidence I have that there was such a congregation is the Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation n. 187.  Not to be counted in totals.


Redwood Christian Park. Conf center, Boulder Creek, 1920s-2010.

            Used as a Methodist camp since the 1920s, the location above Boulder Creek was established formally as a Methodist camp and conference center in 1947 by what is now known as the California Redwood Christian Association. (McCarthy, Grizzlies, p. 92 and Clark, Place Names, pp. 290-291)  Redwood Christian Park is at 15000 Two Bar Road, Boulder Creek 95006, tel. 338-2134. (2010 White Pages)


Monte Toyon Camp. Conf center, Aptos, c1931-2010.

            As of 2007 this camp was owned by United Methodist Church California Nevada Annual Conference, ( 2007) but I do not find this attribution in 2010.  It is, however, operated by United Camps, Conferences and Retreats. (www.uccr .org 2010)  The Methodists acquired the property in about 1931. (article dated 4/1/51 in The McHugh Scrapbook, vol. 3, pp. 90-93)  It is located at 220 Cloister Lane, Aptos 95003, tel. 688-5420. (2010 Yellow Pages)


Freedom Community Methodist Church. Watsonville, 1948-1998.

            This church was organized in 1948 in a building that had been the Roache School at 221 Roache Road; by 1969 the name of the street it was on had been changed to Airport Blvd. (clipping – source lacking – in Pajaro Valley Historical Association Archives)  The congregation’s actual year of incorporation was 1957. (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no.  2064)  In June, 1998 the congregation merged with the First United Methodist Church of Watsonville. (church newsletter of June, 1998)


Live Oak Community Methodist Church. 1949-2008.

             Ground was broken for this church in 1949. (SC Sentinel, May 23, 1949)  Known as the Live Oak Community Methodist Church at least until 1998, (1998 Yellow Pages) it was then known simply as the <Live Oak Church, but listed under United Methodist. (2002-2003 White Pages) It next became a second site of the United Methodist Church, Santa Cruz, although a project to rebuild it, announced in the SC Sentinel on Feb. 19, 2007, has not, according to my observation since then, been completed, and it was not listed in the 2008 and 2010 Yellow and White Pages.


Aptos Community United Methodist Church. 1949-2010.

            This congregation's first church structure began to be used in December, 1949.  In 1950 its building program was 90% complete, and it was known as the <Aptos Community Church. (SC Sentinel, Dec. 22, 1950)  It was located at 8060 Valencia. (1956-1961 Yellow Pages)

Then, according to the SC Sentinel, May 29, 1967, construction on the present church was expected to be completed in late 1967.  It was listed at its present address in Polk 1969. The address is 211 Thunderbird Dr., Aptos 95003, tel. 688-2210. (2010 Yellow Pages and 2010)


#5.2    Free Methodist


Free Methodism was founded in 1860 in New York by Methodists who wanted to be truer to the original inspiration of Methodism.  Melton's Encyclopedia, *230, classifies it under Holiness, rather than Methodist.


Corralitos Community Church. 1884-2010.

            The Free Methodist Society of Corralitos held services as early as 1884, and in 1894 they bought property for a church on Browns Valley Road.  This church is now a recreation hall, and the congregation worships in the present church, which it dedicated in 1967. (Malmin, Corralitos, p. 111)  It was still the <Corralitos Community Free Methodist Church according to the SC Sentinel, July 26, 1984.  It is at 26 Browns Valley Road, Watsonville 95076, tel. 722-4363. (2010 Yellow Pages)


Light & Life Community Free Methodist. Live Oak, 1909-2004.

It appears clear that this was the same as the <Free Methodist Church at 24 Water St., Santa Cruz. (SC Surf, Jan. 2, 1909)  It also seems clear that it was the same as the Free Methodist Church at 35 S. Branciforte Ave., (Santa Cruz County Directory, 1923-24 and Polk 1925 through 1946) at 534 S. Branciforte, (Polk 1950)  and 530 S. Branciforte. (Polk 1955 through 1975)  It appeared at 960 Brommer St. in Polk 1976, and through Polk 1988 it still had its original name.  It was still listed in the 2004 Yellow Pages, but, as I observed in 2006, it is no longer there, and a Jehovah's Witnesses Kingdom Hall occupies its site.


Wesleyan Methodist Camp Ground. Conf center, Scotts Valley, 1945-1976.

            Affiliated with the Free Methodist Church, this campground existed from 1945 to 1976, off the intersection of Scotts Valley Drive and Mt. Hermon Road, but this property is now the location of the Hidden Oaks condominium development. (Seapy, Scotts Valley, p.123; Clark, Place Names, pp. 398-399; and, for the final year, 1976 Yellow Pages)  A chapel on the grounds also served as the church of the local Free Methodist congregation. (observation made in 2006 by a long time Scotts Valley resident)  The congregation's church was advertised as being located in Wesleyan Park in, for instance, the 1974-1976 Yellow Pages.  Once, at least, it was called the <Scotts Valley Free Methodist Church. (Valley Press, Feb. 19. 1964)


#5.3    African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church


            Two bodies of African-American Methodists were formed before 1800.  The larger of the two, the African Methodist Episcopal Church, seems not to have been represented in Santa Cruz, but the other, the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, (Melton, Encyclopedia *202) had an historical presence here.


Zion Chapel. Watsonville, 1867-1890.

            A branch of the AME Zion Church in San Francisco, this was organized by the Rev. A. B. Smith on November 20, 1867, as reported in a Nov. 30, 1867 newspaper article found in the files of the Pajaro Valley Historical Association.  It is not clear whether the article is from the Appeal - evidently published in San Francisco - or from the Watsonville Pajaronian or Pajaro Times. In 1890, according to the U. S. Religious Census, there were 50 AME Zion members in Santa Cruz County.  Evidently these belonged to Zion Chapel.


AME Zion Church. Santa Cruz, 1903-1911.

            The establishment of this congregation was announced in the SC Surf on Nov. 20, 1903, and its meeting place was Temperance Hall.  Later it was at the corner of Vine and Park streets in Santa Cruz; (SC Surf, Jan. 13, 1906, July 21, 1906, Jan. 4, 1908) then it held services in Farmers Union Hall or Carpenters' Hall. (SC Surf, May 16, 1909, June 17, 1910, Dec. 17, 1910, and May 25, 1911)

Temperance Hall was originally on Mission Street where Vine Street (now Cedar Street) came to it from the south and ended.  It was moved a short distance twice before it was razed, in 1930. (Koch, Parade of the Past, p. 32)

Farmers Union Hall was at the southeast corner of Pacific Avenue and Soquel Avenue. (Koch, Parade of the Past, p. 96)


#5.4    German Methodism


            This group of churches originated not in Germany, but in the United States, among German immigrants, and it was, as remarked above, incorporated into the United Methodist Church in 1968.


German Methodist Episcopal Church. Santa Cruz, 1884-1925.

            The <Centennial German Methodist Episcopal Church was incorporated in 1884. (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 122)  Services were listed in the SC Surf as early as January 23, 1884 in Temperance Hall, and the church structure was built in 1884. (Historic Building Survey, Vol. I, p. 64)  It was listed as the <Centennial Methodist Episcopal Church in the Santa Cruz County Directory, 1923-24 and Polk 1925.  According to R. E. Gibson, the German Methodist Church "held German language services until World War I.  After that, the building became Salvation Army headquarters and is today a dance studio." (San Jose Mercury News, Nov. 22, 1994)  In 2005 I observed that its site, 708 Washington St., was the TriYoga Center.


#5.5    Scandinavian Pietism


            The imposition of Lutheranism in Sweden was countered by a Pietistic movement, and some Swedish immigrants brought this to the United States.  The various streams of the movement in the U. S. united in 1885 to form the Swedish Evangelical Mission Covenant Church, which is now the Evangelical Covenant Church of America, Melton's *178.


Mission Springs Christian Conference Center. Scotts Valley, 1925-2010.

            This center, which started as a religious campground in 1925, is affiliated with the Evangelical Covenant Church of America. ( 2010)  It is at 1050 Lockhart Gulch Road, Scotts Valley 95066, tel. 335-9133. (2010 White Pages)


Felton Bible Church. 1961-2010.

            In 1961 a bible study group organized itself into a congregation, then affiliated itself with the Evangelical Free Church, and in 1962 built a new church structure on the former "Boyland" property. (SC Sentinel, Oct. 24, 1986)  In 1987 the congregation was still known as the <Evangelical Free Church. (The San Lorenzo Valley – Scotts Valley 1987-1988 Business directory.  Felton: Valley Graphics, 1987)

The website 2010 identifies the congregation as belonging to the Evangelical Free Church, but does not note when it changed its name to Felton Bible Church.

The Evangelical Free Church, Melton, Encyclopedia *179, was formed in 1884 by non-Lutheran American Scandanavian congregations that did not wish to join the Evangelical Covenant Church.

The Felton Bible Church is at 5999 Graham Hill Road, Felton 95018, tel. 335-3418. (2010 Yellow Pages)


Community Covenant Church. Scotts Valley, 1974-2010.

            Called the <Evangelical Covenant Church" in 1984, (SC Sentinel, July 26, 1984), this congregation was known as the Community Covenant Church in 1993. (1993 Yellow Pages)  It is at 2700 El Rancho Dr., Scotts Valley 95066, tel. 438-4276. (2010 Yellow Pages and 2010)


#6  Holiness (Holiness family)



                        #6.1    Holiness Bands

                        #6.2    Christian and Missionary Alliance

                        #6.3    Church of God (Holiness rather than Pentecostal)

                        #6.4    Church of the Nazarene

                        #6.5    Salvation Army

                        #6.6    Various Holiness


            The Holiness movement grew out of nineteenth century American Methodism and emphasized personal sanctification and social activism.  The National Holiness Association, now the Christian Holiness Association, inaugurated in New York in 1880, has had both regional and local components.  The subgroups, including the Santa Cruz bands, were characterized by streetcorner and public hall revivalist meetings as well as independence from denominational affiliations.  By 1910 the movement had lost its initial force. (Melton, Encyclopedia, pp. 36-37)

The movement, nevertheless, remains a significant sector of Protestant Christianity, and although the Christian Holiness Association is smaller than the National Association of Evangelicals, it functions similarly for its constituents.  The present general status of the movement and of the association is outlined in "The Holiness Churches: A Significant Ethical Tradition" by Donald W. Dayton in 2008, reprinted from The Christian Century, Feb. 26, 1975, pp. 197-201.


#6.1    Holiness Bands


Holiness Band 1. Santa Cruz, 1883-1884.

            This Band was affiliated with the California Holiness Association, which was headquartered in San Francisco under the leadership of the Rev. Mr. Newton. (SC Surf, Dec. 1, 1883; and S.C. Sentinel, Jan. 12, 1884)  Although this Band allowed itself to be called "Salvation Army," it was not a branch of the Salvation Army that had been founded in England. (SC Surf, July 12, 1883)


Holiness Band 2. Santa Cruz, 1883-1884.

            The following facts about the Holiness Band led by J. S. Ledford summarize newspaper reports collected by local historian Phil Reader.

            J. S. Ledford conducted revivalist services in Santa Cruz in summer, 1883, leaving for Oakland on August 18. (SC Surf, Aug. 18, 1883)

            Ledford was back, conducting street meetings by November 5. (SC Surf, Nov. 5, 1883)

            As Ledford and the others filed out of a meeting on January 6, 1884, they were pelted with printers ink, and when they were walking down the street they were assailed with rotten eggs.  A large crowd of "hoodlums" was outside, looking threatening. (SC Surf, Jan. 7, 1884)

            On January 7 again a large crowd awaited Ledford and his followers' emergence from a building where they had met and again eggs were thrown at them. (SC Surf, Jan. 8, 1884)

            On January 8 a small group of residents visited Ledford and told him he was disrupting their lives by turning the brother of one person and the spouse of another away from family.  The group said Ledford should leave town, and he seemed to accept this, but asked that restitution be made for his clothes damage.  A certain Charles Wilson was one of the group who met with Ledford on the eighth. (SC Surf, Jan. 8, 1884)

            Charged with the egg throwing of January sixth, Charles Wilson went on trial today. (SC Surf, Jan. 10, 1884)

            In Wilson's jury trial, which lasted two days, no one came forth to testify unequivocally that Wilson threw eggs at Ledford. (SC Surf, Jan. 11, 1883)

            After four hours of deliberation, the jury reported that there was "a permanent disagreement," with 9 for acquittal and 3 for conviction.  The court then dismissed the case. (SC Surf, Jan. 12, 1884)

In an article alluding to Wilson's acquittal, the SC Surf expressed dismay that he had been acquitted, but stated the real guilt to be that of lax law enforcement, which allowed the street-singing Holiness Band to meet and perform in spite of the general sentiment of the people against it.  Its unpopularity, according to the Surf, lay in Ledford's lack of credentials.  Thus, "Then came the person who calls himself J. S. Ledford without authority from any society, church or sect, a person who has been repudiated by the very same organization he assumes to represent, and who holds no commission from any organized religious society or church -a religious guerrilla so to speak, and presuming upon the tolerance of the people of Santa Cruz, invades the sidewalks and streets of the city for weeks.  His simulated religious fervor united with an excellent musical voice drew about him a band of zealous and sincere, but we believe mis-guided people, and the result has been to seriously agitate society." (Jan. 12, 1884)

            The printers ink thrown at Ledford and the others in the group was appropriated from the Santa Cruz Sentinel, which was in the building where the service was held. (SC Sentinel, Jan. 19, 1884)

            J. S. Ledford said he came from Hannibal, Missouri, had been converted at the age of 21, and in the subsequent five years had preached in many places. (SC Sentinel, Jan. 19, 1884)

            J. S. Ledford left Santa Cruz by boat for Los Angeles on January 22, 1884. (SC Surf, Jan. 23, 1884)

            Whatever may have been J. S. Ledford's fate, the Santa Cruz Sentinel, March 22, 1884 reports,  "It is represented that the two Holiness Bands of this city have united their forces, in somewhat diminished numbers, all not favoring the union. The majority seem to have adopted the motto: In union there is strength; in division there is weakness....  Santa Cruz Band of Holiness will hold regular meetings in the upper hall of the Sons of Temperance on Sundays at 3 o'clock P. M. and Thursdays at 7 o'clock P. M., for the promotion of Christian Holiness. All are invited to attend. A. Lemkau and S. Adkins, Leaders."


#6.2    Christian and Missionary Alliance


            Founded in 1882 in New York by a Presbyterian minister, the Christian and Missionary Alliance is strongly oriented toward missionary work, and it has generated greater membership outside the United States than it has within it.


Neighborhood Church of the Christian Missionary Alliance. Santa Cruz, 1925-2001.

            This congregation was organized in 1925.  It is the same congregation as the <Christian Missionary Alliance Tabernacle at 81 Soquel in Polk 1930 and 1935 and the <Christian and Missionary Alliance Tabernacle at the same address in Polk 1936 and <Christian Missionary Alliance at 260 Soquel Ave. in Polk 1946 and 1955.  It dedicated its new church structure in 1959, (SC Sentinel, Oct. 18, 1959) and it was still in this building, at 225 Rooney St., in 2001. (2001 Yellow Pages)  Note that "Christian Missionary Alliance" and "Christian and Missionary Alliance" are used interchangeably.


LifeSpring Fellowship. 2002-2006, Capitola

            This congregation appeared in the SC Sentinel of July 6, 2002.  The Yellow Pages of 2006 placed it at 1255 41st Ave., Capitola 95010, and identified it as Christian and Missionary Alliance.  It is quite probable that it was a continuation of the Neighborhood Church of the Christian Missionary Alliance.  It is not listed at all in later 2007 White and Yellow Pages, although there was a Lifespring Preschool at the 41st Ave. address until at least 2008.  In 2009, as I observed, the entire structure had been razed, and a large commercial building was going up on the site.


Christ Community Church. 2007-2010, Live Oak.

            Worshipping at the Live Oak Senior Center, 1777 Capitola Road, tel. 336-8079, this congregation has been in the Yellow Pages in 2007 and 2008 under Christian and Missionary Alliance, but without an address in 2010.  Its website, which gives the address, is 2010.


#6.3    Church of God (Holiness rather than Pentecostal)


            The name "Church of God" is used by several diverse groupings of churches.  One of these, which belongs to the Holiness family, is principally represented by the Church of God of Anderson, Indiana, which dates to 1880. (Melton, Encyclopedia, *221)

Another large group of Church of God congregations, stemming from an Appalachian Pentecostal movement, seems not to be represented in Santa Cruz, but is in Watsonville: see   "First Church of God" in #7.1, Various Pentecostal, no longer in existence.

The second, as well as the first, grouping of Churches of God dates back to the 1880s, but there is another notable group which was started in the 1930s and belongs to the Adventist family.  This is the Worldwide Church of God, founded by Herbert Armstrong, who was an early radio evangelist.  The "Church of God" of Watsonville listed below in #11.2 is affiliated with it.


Church of God. Santa Cruz, 1925-1963.

            Founded in 1925, this congregation dedicated its new church on Seabright Ave. in 1949. (SC Sentinel, Sep. 11, 1949)  The cornerstone, on the east side, has two dates, 1925 and 1948.  The address of it, at least from 1948 on, was 1307 Seabright Ave. (Polk, 1950)  In 1963 it merged with the Community Church of God on 41st Avenue, and the Seabright Avenue property was sold. (SC Sentinel, May 3, 1963)


Community Church of God. Capitola, 1958-2004.

            The church was dedicated in 1958, (SC Sentinel, Apr. 6. 1958) and it was at 1255 41st Ave., remaining at this address until 2000. (2000 Yellow Pages)  In 2002 it was gone from there and the LifeSpring Fellowship, as noted above, was at this location.

            Starting in 2002 the < Community Church of God Chapel by the Sea was located at 3673 Portola Dr., Live Oak. (2002 and 2003 Yellow Pages)  According to folders I found at the church door in 2004, this congregation was affiliated with the Church of God of Anderson, Indiana.  This affiliation, in addition to the chronology, makes it seem very probable that it was a continuation of the Community Church of God in Capitola.  In 2005 it was no longer listed in the White Pages.


Biblical Church of God. Santa Cruz? 1984.

            The SC Sentinel, July 26, 1984, lists this church with no address, only a telephone number, 476-1234.  It does, however, group it with the 41st Avenue Community Church of God, which was of the Holiness family.


#6.4    Church of the Nazarene


            The roots of the Church of the Nazarene go back to the late 19th century and the desire to lay greater stress on personal sanctification within the Wesleyan Methodist tradition.  In 1908 the Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene was established, but in 1919 it eliminated "Pentecostal" from its name because it was not a specifically "gifts of the Spirit" type of group. (Melton, Encyclopedia *224)


Church of the Nazarene Santa Cruz. 1930-2010.

             The congregation, now at 115 S. Morrissey Ave., tel. 423-3630, (2010 Yellow Pages) appears to be the same as the Church of the Nazarene which first appeared at 146 Seabright Ave. in 1930, (Polk 1930) <First Church of the Nazarene at 156 Seabright, (Polk 1935 and 1946) and Church of the Nazarene at 1335 Seabright. (Polk 1950)  A structure built for it at the current address and dedicated in 1952 was intended for use eventually as an educational unit. (SC Sentinel, Jan. 25, 1952)


Church of the Nazarene. Watsonville, 1934-2010.

            Presumably this is the successor to the Church of the Nazarene at 1221 Lincoln St.; (Polk 1934 through 1940) then 300 Madison, Watsonville. (Polk 1946 through 1973)  However this may be, the <Watsonville Church of the Nazarene was incorporated in 1938. (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 1251)  The church has been at its present address, 710 Green Valley Road, Watsonville, tel. 722-2407, since at least 1975. (1975 through 2010 Yellow Pages)


Beulah Park. Conf center, Santa Cruz County, 1938-1970s.

This Summer Camp of the Church of the Nazarene was established in 1938 on 24 acres above Carbonera Creek, between Santa Cruz and Scotts Valley, and a "tabernacle" was erected in 1941. (Clark, Place Names, p. 28)  It was sold to investors "almost two decades [before 1991] ago." (San Jose Mercury News, Nov. 20, 1991)


#6.5    Salvation Army


            Founded by William Booth in England in 1878, the Salvation Army was established in the United States in 1880 and in California (San Francisco) in 1882.


Salvation Army. Service org, Watsonville, 1886-2010.

            The Salvation Army has had a presence in Watsonville at least since July 1, 1886, when, according to the July 8, 1886 Watsonville Pajaronian, two eggs were thrown at "representatives of the Salvation Army" as they "held services in front of Lewis's store."  The organization's earliest Watsonville address was 18 Peck; (Polk 1925) then it was at 12 Central Ave. (Polk 1930)  In 1930 it took over the Union Street building which had housed the Japanese Presbyterian Church since 1911, and in Polk 1940 its address in this building was 216 Union St.  The structure was razed in 1992 so that the present Salvation Army facilities at the corner of Union and Grant could be erected. (Pajaronian, Feb. 17, 1992)  The present structure was built in the 1940s. (SC Sentinel, May 15, 2007)  The address is 112 Grant Ave., Watsonville 95076, tel. 724-3922. (2010 White Pages)


Salvation Army. Service org, Santa Cruz, 1909-2010.

The Salvation Army has been in Santa Cruz at least since 1909, when it was soliciting money and supplies so it could open a shelter for men in the former Southern Pacific Railroad station, which it proposed moving to a new location. (SC Surf, Nov. 27, 1909)  Two years later it announced that it had paid most of its debt on its building, which was on Bulkhead St. (SC Surf, June 11, 1911)  Presumably the structures mentioned in these articles were the same; in any event, an article in the Santa Cruz Sentinel on Jan. 25, 1966 states that the Salvation Army erected its first Santa Cruz structure at 10 Bulkhead St., and in 1966 a commemorative plaque was placed there. I could not find this plaque when I looked for it in 2004.

Its Santa Cruz address was 75 Riverside in Polk 1925, 11 Washington in Polk 1930 and 1946, and 708 Washington St. (in the former German American Methodist Episcopal Church) in Polk 1950 and 1960.  Ground was broken for a building on Laurel St. in 1960, (SC Sentinel, Dec. 29, 1960) and this, 721 Laurel St., Santa Cruz, tel. 426-8365, is where it is now. (2010 White Pages)  The Salvation Army entry in the 2007 Yellow Pages also listed <Templo de Santa Cruz at the Laurel St. address, tel. 425-3775, but the 2010 Yellow Pages list this Templo only in the White Pages, and under its own name.


Camp Redwood Glen. Conf center, Scotts Valley, 1945-2010.

            Formerly Summer Home Farm, it has belonged to the Salvation Army since 1945. (SC Sentinel-News, Apr. 22, 1951  It is located at 3100 Bean Creek Road, Scotts Valley 95066, tel. 461-2000. (2010 White Pages)


Silvercrest Residences. Service org, Capitola, c1990-2007.

            Under the name Silvercrest, "The Salvation Army operates a number of moderate cost older adult residences which seek to provide clean, safe and comfortable housing in an environment that is sensitive and responsive to the needs of individual residents. Subsidies are available at most facilities to low income residents who qualify."  The Santa Cruz County Silvercrest was one of 24 in California, 37 throughout the Western states. ( 2007)  The address of this apartment complex was 750 Bay Ave., Capitola 95010, tel. 464-6435 (2007 White Pages)

            According to a SC Sentinel article of Sep. 25, 2006, "The Salvation Army purchased the Silvercrest property after the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake to provide affordable homes for seniors who were displaced by the quake.

            "First Community Housing, a San Jose-based nonprofit, is in the process of purchasing the 96-unit complex from the Salvation Army to maintain it as affordable housing for seniors."  The Silvercrest Residences are not listed in the 2008 White Pages, and the Salvation Army name and shield was removed from the entrance to the driveway in 2008.


#6.6    Various Holiness


Peniel Mission. Service org, Santa Cruz, 1901-1926.

            This rescue mission existed at least from 1901 (exact location not noted) according to the June 8, 1901 SC Surf.  Later it was located on Locust Street, (SC Surf, Jan. 2, June 26, and Dec. 11, 1909) and still later at 41 Vine, (Thurston 1912-1913) where it was still to be found in 1926. (date on a photo of it in UCSC Special Collections)

The Peniel Missions, founded in Los Angeles in 1886, (Melton, Encyclopedia *237) existed until 1999.  There is additional information about them under "CityTeam Camp MayMac" below.  The name Peniel, which means literally "the face of God," is found in the Bible, Genesis, Chapter 32, in which Jacob applies it to the place where he wrestled with the angel.


Mountain Bible Church of Loma Prieta. Santa Cruz County, 1929-2010. 

This congregation arose from a Sunday school endeavor started in 1929 under the auspices of the American Missionary Fellowship (AMF), which at that time was the American Sunday School Union.  It became a worshipping congregation in 1950, still in connection with the American Missionary Fellowship, but it incorporated as the non-denominational Mountain Bible Church in 1977.

From 1929 until 1973 it met mostly in a building on San Jose-Soquel Road, which in the beginning of that period was the Hester Creek School, but came to be owned by the congregation from 1957 to 1973.  Since 1985 it has met at its present location, which is 23946 Summit Road, Los Gatos 95033, tel. 353-2302. (2010 White Pages)

A detail to be added to the early history furnished by the website is the incorporation of the congregation as the <Hester Creek Community Church in 1956 (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 1984)  The church was subsequently known as the <Hester Creek Community Church. (Los Gatos Times - Saratoga Observer, July 21, 1959)

To be reconciled with the website history is the fact that the congregation incorporated in 1975 with the clause that if it were to be dissolved its assets would be turned over to the American Missionary Fellowship. (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 4427)

The American Missionary Fellowship clearly characterizes itself as belonging to the Holiness Family. ( 2010)


CityTeam Camp MayMac. Conf center, Felton, 1930s-2010.

            Located off East Zayante Road, this was founded in the 1930s by May and Mac McLean for underprivileged children of the San Francisco Bay Area, and it still is a children's camp and conference center.  In 1969 it merged with the San Jose Rescue Mission, and in 1983 the resulting organization took the name of CityTeam.  In 1999 the Peniel Mission, headquartered in Los Angeles, also was incorporated into the organization.  CityTeam is a member of the Evangelical Council for Financial Accountability, the statement of belief of which is non-denominational, albeit fundamentalist in tone. ( 2010 and 2010)  The address of Camp MayMac is 9115 East Zayante Road, Felton 95018, tel. 335-3019. (2010 White Pages)


Father Divine Peace Mission. Service org, Santa Cruz, 1936-1941.

Polk 1936 lists "Divine's Father [sic] Peace Mission Joy Harmony rep 141 Chestnut av."  Polk 1937-1941, however, gives its address as 21 Roberts Ave., Santa Cruz. The telephone directory White Pages for these years do not list the Peace Mission.

            Father Divine, born George Baker, c1880-1965, initiated the Peace Mission Movement in 1919 in the New York City area. From 1933 its headquarters were in Harlem.  At its peak in the 1930s it had an estimated 2,000,000 members.  After Father Divine's death his second wife, known then as Mother Divine, continued the movement. (Encyclopedia of Religious History. Revised Edition. Boston: Proseworks, 2001)  I classify Father Divine's activities here in the Holiness Family on the basis of  two oblique references in Melton Encyclopedia *262 and *937.


Father Divine Peace Restaurant. Service org, Santa Cruz, 1937-1942.

            The restaurant, located at 401 Front St., is listed in Polk 1937 through 1941 and in the White Pages from 1938 through 1942.  At this address in the White Pages of 1945 the restaurant "Chicken Villa" made is first appearance.


Pajaro Rescue Mission. Service org, Monterey County, 1964-2010.

            The earliest listing I have for this is in the 1964 Yellow Pages.  The Mission's entry in the Community Information Database of 2010 states, "Nightly shelter for homeless men in a Christian community. Dormitory atmosphere, dinner and breakfast served, beds and showers provided. Attending a daily Christian service is encouraged, but not required."  The Monterey Bay Teen Challenge, which “operates the programs,” (SC Sentinel, Dec. 19, 2008) is a nation-wide “Christian Men’s Discipleship Training Program.” ( 2008)

            The Mission is at 111 Railroad Ave., Watsonville 95076, tel.724-9576. (2010 White Pages)


Santa Cruz Rescue Mission. Service org, Santa Cruz, 1970.

            The only information I have about this charitable facility is that in 1970 it changed its name to <Santa Cruz Mission Christian Center. (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 3378)


Elm Street Mission. Service org, Santa Cruz, 1972-2010.

            Called <Elm Street Rescue Mission on its 2004 website, "The Elm Street Mission has been helping the homeless and hurting of Santa Cruz since 1972. We are a Church with a focus on working with those who are bound by addictions or mental illness.  We serve a big God who can and will help all those who desire a change in their life and will surrender their lives to Him in repentance.  We feed, clothe, help get into programs.” ( 2010)  The facility is not listed in the 2010 telephone directory, but the sign on its door at 117 Elm St., gives its schedule of worship and service activities and its telephone number, 420-0543.

The mission's structure was the former Advent Christian Church, which was built in 1912.  In 1976 the Teamsters Union Local 912 was using the building. (Santa Cruz Historic Building Survey, Vol. I, p. 78)  In 1974 and 1984 it was the site of the <Bible Missionary Church, (Polk 1974, SC Sentinel, July 26, 1984) which became the <Elm St. Bible Missionary Church, (1988 White Pages) which in turn became the <Elm St. Church in 1989 and the Elm St. Mission in 2004. (1989-2004 White Pages)


Global Youth Evangelism.        Service org, Santa Cruz County, 1976-1984.

            In its website, 2008, this organization says of itself, "The vision of Global Youth Evangelism and its associated ministries had its origin in the late 1950s in a small mountain house church near Los Gatos, California."  The website goes on to say that it expanded its quarters in 1961, and that in 1979 it launched its principal activity, the assisting of missionaries by distributing to them the Christian Worker Bible Study Series.

As revealed by the White Pages from 1977 to 1984, the address of Global Youth Evangelism was 23946 Summit Dr., which is the address of the Mountain Bible Church of Loma Prieta.  In 1978 Global Youth Evangelism also had a "women's home" at 135 Belmont St., Santa Cruz. (1978 White Pages)  In the mid 1980s, according to the website, it moved from Los Gatos to Orland, California.


Mountain Bible Christian School. Santa Cruz County, 1983-2010.

            According to the website, the <Mountain Bible School was founded in 1983, and from 1985 to 2004 was at the Mountain Bible Church location. This website, however has not been operative since 2006.

            In 2010 the K-8 Mountain Bible Christian School  is at 23946 Summit Road, the same address as the Mountain Bible Church, and its telephone number is 408-353-2192. ( 2010)


Volunteers of America. Service org, Live Oak, 1986-2010.

            Ballington and Maude Booth, son and daughter-in-law of William Booth, the founder of the Salvation Army, established the Volunteers of America in New York in 1896.  Its headquarters are in Metairie, Lousiana.  Its mission is to provide social services of many kinds, including the ownership and management of housing facilities. ( 2010)

            VoA's only activity in Santa Cruz County is the <East Cliff Village Apartments at 1635 Tremont Drive, Santa Cruz 95062, tel. 462-2400, where it provides over 70 low cost independent living units for the elderly. ( 2010)


Santa Cruz Revival Apostolic Ministry. 2007-2010.

            In the Holiness tradition, although this background is not mentioned on its website or in newspaper accounts, this group meets in outdoor public places.  Its creed is neither fundamentalist nor Pentecostal.  Also called <Santa Cruz Revival, its contact address is P.O. Box 1893, Capitola 95010, tel. 465-0616. ( 2010)


#7     Pentecostal (Pentecostal family)



                        #7.1    Various Pentecostal, no longer in existence

                        #7.2    Assemblies of God

                        #7.3    International Church of the Foursquare Gospel

                        #7.4    Pentecostal-United

                        #7.5    Pentecostal Holiness

                        #7.6    Pentecostal Church of God of America

                        #7.7    Various Pentecostal


            An essay on the development of Pentecostalism in general and in Santa Cruz in particular can be found in the essay "Pentecostalism" in Chapter 5 Particulars.

            Please note that "Church of God" appears 15 times in the alphabetical index as the whole name or part of the name of a congregation. Most of the congregations so named are or were Pentecostal.


#7.1    Various Pentecostal, no longer in existence


Pentecostal Tabernacle. Santa Cruz, 1909-1912.

In June and July, 1909 this congregation met at Garfield St. near Soquel Ave. (SC Surf, June 26 and July 10, 1909)

            The <Gospel Tabernacle at precisely the same address and with the same Pastor, Rev. L. A. (Lee) Wilkerson, was listed in the Surf on July 2, 1910.  The Gospel Tabernacle at 108 Garfield, evidently the same as that listed in the Surf, was in Thurston 1910-1911 and 1912-1913.  It is not in the list of churches in the Surf of July 4, 1914 and July 13, 1918.

The location of the Pentecostal Tabernacle - Gospel Tabernacle suggests that it is a forerunner of the Christian Life Center, which is listed below, in #7.2.  It does not seem that there was an organizational continuity between the two congregations, and, in any event, the Pentecostal Tabernacle is, to the best of my knowledge, the earliest Pentecostal church in Santa Cruz County.

For Pastor L. A. Wilkerson's role in the Advent Christian Church see #11.1.


Pentecostal Mission. Santa Cruz, 1923.

            At 335 Pacific Ave., this association is in the alphabetical and street address listings of The City Directory, 1923-1924, but not in the list of churches, and no pastor's name is given with it.  One could suppose that it became the Pentecostal Assembly which is listed below under Christian Life Center in #7.2 Assemblies of God.


Church of God (1). Watsonville, 1929-1973.

            Originally at 28 J St., (Polk 1929) this congregation, which was probably affiliated with the Church of God of Cleveland Tennessee, clearly remained on J St. (although its address became 428) through 1941. (Polk 1929-41)  Then, by 1946 there was at 700 Madison St. a <First Church of God, which remained there at least through 1973. (Polk 1946-73)  I am supposing that these two names and two addresses are of the same congregation because by 1953 there is another Church of God at 600 Madison St.  For this latter congregation see below, Church of God (2).


Full Gospel Assembly. Santa Cruz, 1933-1936.

This congregation met at 10 Locust St., (Polk 1933 through 1935) and, although the church at this address in Polk 1936 was called <Santa Cruz Pentecostal Mission, it can be supposed that the latter was a continuation of the earlier church.


Full Gospel Mission. Watsonville, 1936-1981.

            There was a <Full Gospel Church at 12 Bridge St. in Polk 1936 and a Full Gospel Mission at 16 Bridge St. in Polk 1946.  A church of the latter name appeared at 258 Main St. in Polk 1950.  In 1961 there was a <Full Gospel Mission of Watsonville. (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 2328)

            Then, from 1961 through 1963 the Full Gospel Mission was at 236 Ford St. in Polk, and in the Yellow Pages the <Church of God was at that address from 1963 through 1965.  The <Deliverance Temple, however, was at 236 Ford St. in Polk 1964.  Still later, in the Yellow Pages from 1977 through 1981, the Deliverance Temple was at 524 Rogge St.  I do not know how all these variously named congregations were interrelated, but I hesitate to consider them to have been separate associations.


Latter Rain Gospel Association of Freedom, California. Watsonville, 1944.

            The only information I have about this group is that it was incorporated in 1944. (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 1570)  In the early years of Pentecostalism the term Latter Rain was used to refer to the outpouring of the Spirit in the current late stage of history.  In 1947 it began to be applied to a specific Pentecostal movement in Canada and the United States which was at odds with the great majority of Pentecostals. ( 2008)  Since the group in Freedom predated the Latter Rain Movement, it presumably used the term in the original sense.  It is, however, not clear that the association came to exist physically.  Not to be counted in totals.


Church of God in Christ. Santa Cruz, 1953-1988.

            At 1300 Fair Ave., (Polk 1953-88) this church appears to have been affiliated with the Church of God in Christ, which was established in 1894, has its headquarters in Memphis, and has over 3,000,000 members. (Melton, Encyclopedia p. 43 and *387)  Beginning in 1964 its address is 1301 Fair Ave.  Polk 1950 lists the <Faith Temple of the Church of God in Christ at 1300 Fair Ave. and this appears to be the same congregation.  Polk 1970 has <Power House Of God in Christ at 1303 Fair Ave.


Church of God (2). Watsonville, 1953-1964.

            From 1953 through 1964 Polk listed a Church of God at 600 Madison, Watsonville.  This appears to have been a Pentecostal congregation that disappeared, but I have no other information about it.



Gospel Tabernacle. Watsonville, 1955-1959.

            Polk gives the address of this church as 111 Green Valley Road from 1955 to 1958, and 113 Green Valley Road in 1959.



Full Gospel Church of Davenport. 1959-?.

            This congregation was incorporated in 1959, (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 2135).  A person who was a resident of Davenport at that time told me in 2009 that the congregation lasted for “many years,” that it met in a house, the pastor’s, she supposed, and that it helped immigrants “with business and legal practicalities.”


Pentecostal Tabernacle. Capitola, 1960.

Polk 1960 lists this congregation at 814 38th Ave.


Faith Tabernacle. Watsonville, 1960-1987.

                        Polk lists this church through this span of years at 113 Green Valley Road


Pentecostal Temple. Santa Cruz, 1964-1971.

            Polk 1964-1971 places this congregation at 513 Center St.  I propose that this congregation was the same as the <Santa Cruz Pentecostal Tabernacle Church Corp., which was incorporated in 1964. (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 2604)


Jesus Name Temple. Watsonville, 1976-1989.

            Polk 1986 through 1989 has this church at 130 Rodriguez St. There was a <Church of the Living God Apostolic Temple at this address in the 1976 through 1978 Yellow Pages.  I am supposing that the earlier congregation was related to the later one as its antecedent.

            In an oral history from 1978 it is stated that there was a church attended by blacks on Rodriguez Street.  The Church of the Living God Apostolic Temple seems to be the only church that would fit this description.  The dialog recorded reads, “There aren’t any blacks in Watsonville.”  “Yes there are!  Their church is over there on Rodrigues [sic] Street, almost across from where Amelia lives.” (Watsonville: “I would have told it if I had a chance.” A Collection of Oral Histories of Ethnic People. Watsonville: International Senior Citizens’ Center, 1978. P. 127, from interview with Lopez Family conducted by Tina Starkey)


Centro Cristiano. Watsonville, 1988.

            Polk’s 1988’s entry for this church at 113 Green Valley Road is the only indication I have of its existence.


New Jerusalem Church. Watsonville, 1990s

            Opened in 1990 or 1991, (SC Sentinel, Nov. 15, 2005) this congregation was Pentecostal. (SC Sentinel, Dec. 17, 2005)  Other items of information about it are in the SC Sentinel, April 12, 2005 and Jan. 21, 2006 and the Watsonville Pajaronian, Dec. 9, 2005.  All this newspaper information is in connection with the trial of the former pastor for alleged sexual molestation of a minor female church member.


#7.2    Assemblies of God


            The Assemblies of God, one of the largest Pentecostal groups of churches, is Baptistic and Trinitarian, terms explained in Chapter 5 Particulars.

It is also both Evangelical and Fundamentalist, and its founding, in 1914, marked the beginning of Pentecostalism as a distinct set of denominations. (Melton, Encyclopedia *313)


Christian Life Center. Santa Cruz. 1924-2010.

            In 1924 the <Pentecostal Assembly was at 37 Soquel Ave., and in 1925 the <Glad Tidings Pentecostal Assembly was at the same address.  In 1927 the Glad Tidings Pentecostal Assembly was located at "Harrison, cor Ocean;" in 1929 its address was given as 25 Harrison; in 1937 it was at 125 Harrison; in 1948 it was at 125 Dakota.  In the meanwhile, in 1927 it had changed its name to <Glad Tidings Tabernacle of the Assemblies of God. (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 928)  In 1949 it became the <First Assembly of God Church of Santa Cruz, (also SC Co. Art. of Inc. 928) and by 1950 it had moved to 1005 Mission St.  In 1977 it changed its name to Christian Life Center.  The continuity expressed in this paragraph is clear from the articles of incorporation and from the year to year progression in the three kinds of listings in Polk 1924-1977: classified, alphabetical, and street address.

It is also necessary to know that the "Harrison" on which the church was located was "E From Garfield to Ocean 1 blk n of Soquel," and not the Harrison Street which was near Morrissey Blvd.  The "Harrison" of the church became "Dakota" in 1946 or 1947.  Moreover, in 1950, the first year of the First Assembly of God on Mission Street, the Dakota Avenue site had become Santa Cruz County offices, although the classified section still had the Glad Tidings Tabernacle there (as well as the First Assembly of God Church on Mission Street).  In 2002 or 2003 the Christian Life Center absorbed the Christian Life Center Churches in Scotts Valley and in Aptos.  The structure of the one in Scotts Valley became the Scotts Valley Community Center, but the other building was still for sale in September, 2003. (SC Sentinel, Sep. 14, 2003)

The Christian Life Center is affiliated with the General Council of the Assemblies of God, ( 2010) and its address is 1009 Mission St., Santa Cruz 95060, tel. 426-7733. (2010 Yellow Pages)


Monte Vista Christian School. Watsonville, 1926-2010.

            Grades 6 through 12, founded in 1929, this Interdenominational school is located at 2 School Way, Watsonville 95076, tel. 722-8178. ( 2010) A local observer tells me that the chapel was at one time connected with the Assemblies of God, but this is no longer the case.


Pajaro First Assembly of God. Watsonville, 1937-1976.

            The <Full Gospel Church of Pajaro was incorporated in 1939; its name was changed to <Pajaro First Assembly of God in 1963, at which time its address was 20 Salinas Road. (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 3332)

            I do not quite see how to reconcile with the incorporation facts the listings in Polk, which are:

                        There was a <Pentecostal Church of Pajaro at 30 Salinas Road from 1937 to 1946.

                        The Full Gospel Church of Pajaro was at 20 Salinas Road in 1946.

                        The <Pajaro First Assembly of God Church was at 505 San Juan Road, Watsonville from 1964 to 1973 – and 1976 in the Yellow Pages.

            Nevertheless I propose that all the above information refers to one and only one congregation.


Christian Fellowship Center. Santa Cruz, 1938-200?.

            From 1938 through 1940 this church was called the <Pentecostal Church of God and was located at 111 Grant Ave.  In 1941 it remained at this address but was called the <Bethel Pentecostal Church.  In 1946 the Pentecostal Church of God was at 208 Hammond Avenue, but by 1950 its address was 140 Hammond.  In 1955 the church at this latter address became the <Bethel Assembly of God.  By 1970 it was called <Bethel Assembly of God Eastside.  In 1980 it was still the Bethel Assembly of God, but in 1982 it was listed simply as the <Assembly of God.  From 1985 to 1988 the Christian Fellowship Center was at this address. All the information in this paragraph is from Polk 1938 through 1988.

            In 2006, 2007, and 2008 the Christian Fellowship Center was not listed in the White or Yellow Pages, but the Assemblies of God website, 2010, claimed it and gave the telephone number of the pastor, 458-1265.

            In February 2007 I visited the site and found a church structure, complete with a large cross, but no sign identifying it as host to a worshipping congregation.


Assembly of God Church. Soquel, 1949-2003.

            This was organized in 1949 as the <Friendly Community Church of the Assembly of God, and it moved to 2715 Porter St. in 1952. (SC Sentinel, Nov. 14, 1952)  A new addition was dedicated in 1958. (SC Sentinel, Dec. 5, 1958)  In 1970 ground was broken for the <Soquel Assembly of God at 5630 Soquel Dr., (Cabrillo Times and Green Sheet, June 11, 1970) which was then called the <Cabrillo Assembly of God. (Polk 1970 - 1980 and SC Sentinel, July 26, 1984)  Still later it was called the <Soquel Church of Grace, (1993 through 2002 Yellow Pages, which list it under Assemblies of God) and, before the building was sold to the Inner Light Ministries in 2003 it was also called simply <Church of Grace. (SC Sentinel, Sep. 23, 2003)


Aptos Christian Fellowship. 1950-2010.

            In 1950 a group of people started a Bible study group in Valencia Hall, a former country schoolhouse in Aptos. (1)

By 1954 they had been recognized as a congregation by the Assemblies of God, and soon after that they built a small church structure.  They built (literally built, i. e., by volunteer labor) their present church, and dedicated it in 1979. (2)  For some years it was known as the <Assembly of God Aptos. (3) Its address is 7200 Freedom Blvd., Aptos 95003, tel. 688-3312. (4)



1.         1998 Directory of the Aptos Assembly of God published by the Gospel Publishing House, Cleveland, Tennessee.

2.         Eric Johnson, Aptos Assemblies of God Church:  An Engagement in Myriad Acts. 1988 manuscript in UCSC Special Collections, pp. 5-6.

3.         1975 and 1983 Yellow Pages.

4.         2010 Yellow Pages.


Bethany University. School, Scotts Valley, 1950-2010.

            This institution is affiliated with the General Council of the Assemblies of God.  In 1950 the <Glad Tidings Bible Institute of Oakland moved to the Assemblies of God property called Bethany Park at 6457 Los Gatos Hwy., Santa Cruz. (Polk 1960)  The Institute was renamed <Bethany Bible College. (SC Sentinel, Sep 19, 1950)

            From the website 2008:  "[<]Bethany College is a four-year, regionally accredited, coeducational institution of higher education that has been operated by the Northern California and Nevada District of the Assemblies of God since 1919. The mission of the College is to prepare men and women for Christian leadership, whether within the church or in the larger society. Historically, Bethany has been the leading source of ministers and lay leaders for the supporting denomination, but more than a third of the students enrolled come from other Pentecostal, charismatic, and evangelical traditions."  The website in 2010 contains this and much more information about the institution.

On April 20, 2005 the Northern California and Nevada District Council of the Assemblies of God approved the change of name to Bethany University. (SC Sentinel, Apr. 25, 2005)  Although the location has not changed, the present address is 800 Bethany Dr., Scotts Valley 95066, tel. 438-3800. (2010 Yellow Pages)


Grace Temple. Watsonville, 1959-2010.

            This church was incorporated in 1959 as the <New Hope Chapel, Assembly of God, of Freedom, Calif. (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 2233)  It was called <New Hope Church (Polk 1959 through 1967) and <New Hope Chapel-Assemblies of God, (Polk 1969 through 1973) both of which were at 311 Roache, a location that became 311 Airport Blvd.

In 1975 it incorporated as Grace Temple. (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 4134)  Its address in the 1975 Yellow Pages was 209 Prospect.  It was, however, at 311 Airport Blvd. in the SC Sentinel, July 26, 1984 and Polk 1986 and it is still there, tel. 722-5186. (2010 Yellow Pages)

Whether Grace Temple is, properly speaking, the lineal descendant of New Hope Chapel or its successor I do not know from the information presented here.  However this may be, the present congregation is an affiliate of the Northern California and Nevada Council of the Assemblies of God. (obituary of a “pioneer member,” Tranquillino Empleo Dizon, SC Sentinel, April 1, 2005)


House of Prayer Community Church. Santa Cruz County, 1960-2010.

Since at least 1988, this church has been at 905 Amesti Road, Watsonville 95076, tel. 722-9243. (1988 through 2008 Yellow Pages)  It was, however, incorporated in 1960 as the <House of Prayer Assembly of God, (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 2363) which is the name under which it is listed in the 2010 Yellow Pages.


Redwood Christian Center. Felton, 1963-2010.

            From 1963 through 1980 this congregation was called <Felton Assembly of God. (1963-1980 Yellow Pages)  In 1966 it was incorporated as the <Valley Assembly of God of Felton. (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 2931)  The earliest entry I have for it under its current name is in the SC Sentinel, July 26, 1984.  Located at 6869 Hwy. 9, Felton 95018, tel. 335-5307, (2010 Yellow Pages)  it is listed on the Assemblies of God website, 2010.


Faith Chapel Assembly of God. Boulder Creek, 1964.

The address of this congregation was Central Avenue, Boulder Creek. (Valley Press, Feb. 19, 1964)


Scotts Valley Christian Center. 1964-2000.

The <Scotts Valley Assembly of God Church was incorporated in 1958.  (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 2081)  Also known as the <Assembly of God Scotts Valley, (1965 Yellow Pages) it became in 1972 the <Maranatha Assembly of God and remained such until at least 1982. (1972-1982 Yellow Pages) In the period 1993 through 2000 it had the name Scotts Valley Christian Center. (1993 through 2000 Yellow Pages)  Its address throughout all these years was 123 S. Navarra Drive.


Templo El Calvario Spanish Assembly. Watsonville, 1966-1989.

            As listed in Polk 1969 through 1972, the address is 152 Blackburn St., in 1973 through 1986 it is 517 Center St., and in 1988 through 1989 it is 731 Center St.

            The <Templo Universal Spanish Assembly of Watsonville, incorporated in 1966 (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 3379) may have been totally unrelated to the Templo El Calvario, but, not knowing anything else about it, I am placing it here on the likelihood that the difference is merely in the corporate versus the popular name.


Sherwood Christian Schools. Santa Cruz County? 1967.

            The only information I have about this entry is that it was incorporated in 1967 as an Assemblies of God facility. (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 3077)  Not to be counted in totals.


Green Valley Christian School. Watsonville, 1970-2010.

            K-8, founded in 1970; accredited by the Association of Christian Schools International.  According to its website, 2010, it is located at the Green Valley Christian Center, address 376 South Green Valley Road, Watsonville 95076, and its telephone number is 724-6505.


Full Gospel Church of Las Lomas. Monterey County, 1975-2010.

            The earliest date I have for this congregation is 1975. (1975 Yellow Pages)  Listed on the Assemblies of God website, 2010, it is located at 29 Willow Road, Watsonville 95076, tel. 722-1413. (2010 Yellow Pages)


Green Valley Christian Center. Watsonville, 1977-2010.

            Since its establishment in 1977, (1977 Yellow Pages) this congregation has been at 376 South Green Valley Road, Watsonville 95076, tel. 728-1424. ( 2010)


Coast Chapel. Live Oak, 1980-2010.

In 1980 and 1981 this was the <El Salvador Church, (1980-1981 Yellow Pages) but in 1980 it was also the <Assembly of God Church. (Polk, 1980)

Referred to as the <Redwood Coast Chapel in the SC Sentinel if Nov. 10, 2007, it was called the <Coast Community Chapel in the 2003 Yellow Pages and on the Assemblies of God website, 2010. On its own website, 2010, and in the 2010 Yellow Pages its location is 1275 30th Ave., Santa Cruz 95062, tel. 475-4351.


Faith Chapel. Capitola, 1982-1995.

            This congregation's address in the SC Sentinel, July 26, 1984, and in the 1993 Yellow Pages was 120 Monterey Ave., the Capitola Theater. Generally, however, in that span of years it was listed without address in the Yellow Pages.


Fasting Prayer Mountain of the World. Conf center, Scotts Valley, 1985-2010.

            Established in 1985 by Korean immigrants who were members of the Korean Assemblies of God, which had a large center at "Fasting Prayer Mountain" there, this conference center retains informal links with Assemblies of God in San Jose, but is characterized by its co-pastors as non-denominational.  (visit of July, 2004)  It is located at 997 Lockhart Gulch Road, Scotts Valley 95066, tel. 335-5635. (2010 White Pages, which use the name <Fasting Prayer Chapel)


Solid Rock Church of Boulder Creek. 1992.

            This congregatiion, which met in the Boulder Creek Recreation Hall, was identified in the 1992 Yellow Pages as being of the Assemblies of God.


Seascape Community Church. Aptos, 1993-1998.

The Yellow Pages for each of the years 1993-1998 list this congregation under Assemblies of God, but give only a telephone number without an address.


Puerta Camino Y Meta. Watsonville, 2003-2010.

At 124 East Lake Ave., Watsonville 95076, tel. 728-9007, this congregation is listed under “Assemblies of God – Independent,” (2010 Yellow Pages)” and it is not listed in the Assemblies of God website, 2010.


Sojourners Church. Scotts Valley, 2004-2010.

Meeting at the Scotts Valley Community Center, this congregation can be reached through its website, 2010, and an email address given on the Assemblies of God website, 2010.


#7.3    International Church of the Foursquare Gospel


            The flamboyant, charismatic preacher Aimee Semple McPherson founded a congregation in the Angelus Temple, Los Angeles, in 1923, and by 1927 this had grown to be the International Church of the Foursquare Gospel.  The four points to which its name refers are Christ as savior, baptizer, healer, and coming king. (Melton, Encyclopedia *329)

            The International Church of the Foursquare Gospel is Baptistic and Trinitarian, terms explained in Chapter 5 Particulars.


      Foursquare Gospel Church. Santa Cruz, 1946-1988.

This church was at 1101 Bay St., Santa Cruz, (Polk 1948-1988) but one would suppose that it was a descendant of the Four Square Gospel [Church] at 12 Younglove Ave. in Polk 1946.


      Four Square Gospel Church. Watsonville, 1946-1969.

            In Polk 1946 it was at 258 Main St., but it was at 527 Center St. in Polk 1950-1969.  In 1969 Polk listed it simply as <Foursquare Church.


New Hope. Scotts Valley, 1975-2010.

            From 1975 until at least 1993 this congregation was known as the <Community Foursquare Church of Scotts Valley, (1975 and 1993 Yellow Pages) but in 1998 it was listed as the <Valley Praise Center. (1998 Yellow Pages)  Since at least 2003 it has had its present name, and as it was from the beginning, it is at 4001 Granite Creek Road, Scotts Valley 95066, tel. 438-1771. (2003 and 2010 Yellow Pages)


Lighthouse Christian Fellowship. Soquel, 1981-2010.

            Founded in 1981, this congregation moved its worship location from the pastor's house to a hall in Twin Lakes College of Healing Arts, then to a room in a fitness center, and then to a storefront site in El Rancho Shopping Center on Portola Avenue, all by 1983. (Alfred S. L. Kwok, "Lighthouse Christian Fellowship."  UCSC Humanities 61, Spring 1984. Manuscript in UCSC Special Collections)

In 1984 its address was 43 Rockview Dr., "Opal Cliffs," which is in Live Oak. (SC Sentinel, July 26, 1984)  This last site may have been the pastor's address, but, however that may have been, the congregation has been worshipping at the present address, 4525 Soquel Dr., Soquel 95073, tel. 462-5452, since 1986. (1986 through 2008 Yellow Pages and 2010 White Pages)

The website 2010 states that <Crosspoint Church is a new church, but its address and telephone number are those of Lighthouse Christian Fellowship, and the website copyright is to “Crosspoint Foursquare Church.



Coastlands. Aptos, 1984-2010

            This congregation was established on New Year's Eve, 1984 in the Soquel home of the founding pastor.  It used several temporary places of worship, including the Seventh Day Adventist Church in Soquel, before moving to its present location. (SC Sentinel, Dec. 16, 2006)

            In 1991 it began leasing its present location from Dominican Hospital, which had bought it from the Poor Clare Nuns. (SC Sentinel, May 24, 2007)

            It claims "A non-religious approach to understanding the Christian faith." (SC Sentinel, May, 2003)  It is, however, affiliated with the International Church of the Foursquare Gospel. ( 2010)  In the 2010 Yellow Pages it is also called <Aptos Foursquare Church.  It is located at 280 State Park Dr., Aptos 95003, tel. 688-5775. (2010 Yellow Pages)


Lighthouse Christian Fellowship. Watsonville, 1989-?

                        This Foursquare Gospel Church met at 113 Green Valley Road.  (Told to me by one of its founding members.)


Santa Cruz Chapel. 1992-2003.

            The 1992 through 2003 Yellow Pages list this under "Churches-Foursquare Gospel," but it was not listed in either the 2004 Yellow Pages or White Pages.  After it ceased to be a Foursquare Gospel church the building was privately owned, first by one party and then, after 2004, by another, who was using it as his residence, at 429 Pennsylvania Ave., in 2006. (private communication from the 2006 owner)


Grace Fellowship. Scotts Valley, 1995-2004.

This church, at 6062 Graham Hill Road, Scotts Valley 95066, was listed in the White Pages starting in 1995 and in the Yellow Pages of 2004, but in 2005 it was in neither.


#7.4    Pentecostal-United


            The United Pentecostal Church International was founded in 1945 from preexisting Pentecostal groupings.  It is the largest non-Trinitarian Pentecostal church in North America. (Anderson, Pentecostalism, p. 49)


United Pentecostal Church. Watsonville, 1950.

This church was at 25 Van Ness Ave. (Polk 1950)


Cornerstone United Pentecostal Church. Watsonville, 1951-2010.

            It appears that this congregation was incorporated in 1951 as the <United Pentecostal Church of Watsonville. (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 1691)  According to the founding pastor’s obituary, which calls the church the <First United Pentecostal Church, it was founded in 1953 or shortly after that. (SC Sentinel, Dec. 16, 2004)

            Polk 1955 lists United Pentecostal [Church] at 457 Carey Ave., and Polk 1967 has it at its present address.  The Yellow Pages have listed it at least since 1983, the name change occurring between 1998 and 2003.  The present address is 302 Carey Ave., Watsonville 95076, tel. 724-2866. (2010 White Pages)

            The congregation is listed on the United Pentecostal Church International website, 2010.


Christ Temple. Santa Cruz, 1952-1980.

            This church was dedicated in 1952. (SC Sentinel, Nov. 14, 1952)  With 1335 Seabright Ave. as its address, it was listed specifically as the <Christ Temple United Pentecostal Church in Polk 1980.


First United Pentecostal Church of Santa Cruz. Live Oak, 1987-2010.

             This congregation appeared, without address, in the 1987 Yellow Pages and it was still listed there in the same way in 2003.  I observed from the street in 2004 a sign showing that the congregation was meeting in the facility of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints at 2301 17th Ave., Live Oak, but since 2005 I no longer saw the sign.

            Early in 2006 the United Pentecostal Church International website,, listed the congregation, giving only a telephone number, but in 2010 the website lists the telephone number, 476-4038, and an address, 111 Errett Circle, Santa Cruz. The 2010 White Pages also give the number, but not the address.


#7.5    Pentecostal Holiness


            With roots both Methodist and Baptist, dating back to the 19th century, the Pentecostal Holiness Church was established in 1911, and in 1975 it prefixed "International" to its name.  Its headquarters are in Bethany, Oklahoma. ( 2008)  The characteristic belief of all Pentecostal Holiness churches, as stated in Chapter 5 Particulars, is that the experience of the fullness of Christian life occurs in three stages.  I presume that the first five following congregations, no longer in existence, were affiliated with it.  The other congregations in this heading are certified as IPHC churches by the website.


Santa Cruz Revival Center. Live Oak, 1946-1984.

In 1946, according to Polk, there was, among "miscellaneous churches," a Santa Cruz Revival Center at 26 Short St., and from 1984 to 1986 the Yellow Pages listed under Pentecostal Holiness a church of the same name at 1818 Felt St., Live Oak.

The <Santa Cruz Revival Tabernacle was incorporated in 1957 in order to, among other purposes, “establish, operate and maintain missions, churches, societies, Bible Classes, and Christian Workers’ Training Centers.” (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 2012)

The <Revival Center, Santa Cruz was incorporated in 1973 “for worship, Christian education, and evangelization” in connection with the North American Evangelistic Association. (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 3730)

  Not having further information about any of these entries, I hesitate to think that they refer to multiple congregations.


Pentecostal Holiness Church. Santa Cruz, 1950.

This church was at 139 Walnut Ave. (Polk 1950)


Pentecostal Holiness Church. Live Oak, 1953-1975.

            There was a church of this name at 1315 or 1331 Bulb Ave. from 1953 to 1975; the address given in Polk varied between the one and the other


Pentecostal Holiness Mission. Monterey County, 1955-1989.

            Polk 1955 listed this church as <Pentecostal Holiness, whereas Polk 1960 through 1967 had Pentecostal Holiness Mission.  The 1975 Yellow Pages had at this address <Apostolic Church of Jesus Christ International, and Polk 1986 through 1989 had <Templo Bethlehem there.  The address was 16 San Juan Road, Watsonville.


Eastside Friendly Bible Church. Live Oak, 1964-1985.

In 1964 the East Side Friendly Bible Church was at 1319 Water St., Santa Cruz. (Polk 1964)

In 1970 the <Santa Cruz Eastside Friendly Bible Church was at 1830 Felt St., and the <Friendly Bible Church was at 885 17th Ave. (Polk 1970)

From 1974 to 1985 at 1818 Felt St. was the Santa Cruz Eastside Friendly Bible Church. (Polk 1974-1985)  Nevertheless the SC Sentinel for July 26, 1984 lists the <Christian Faith Center at 1818 Felt St.


Iglesia Santa Pentecostes Templo Jerusalem. Watsonville, 1969-2010.

            Polk 1969 through 1973 and the 1975 Yellow Pages have <Templo Jerusalem at 9 Brooklyn St.  This appears to be the same congregation as the Iglesia Santa Pentecostes Templo Jerusalem, as does the <Iglesia de Dios at 209 Prospect in the 1978 Yellow Pages.  The church's address in Polk 1989 was 702 Madison St., but the present address is 209 Prospect St., Watsonville 95076, tel. 724-7764. (2010 Yellow Pages)


Christian Heritage Church. Watsonville, 1973-1989.

            The <Green Valley Pentecostal Holiness Church was at 336 Green Valley Road in Polk, 1973.  This church appears to have become the Christian Heritage Church at the same address. (1983 Yellow Pages and SC Sentinel, July 26, 1984)  In Polk 1989 the address of the Christian Heritage Church was 185 Westridge.


Church of the Rock. Live Oak, 1988-1992.

In 1988, at 1818 Felt St., Live Oak, stood the Church of the Rock according to Polk.  In 1991 the church of this name ceased to be on Felt, but in 1993 a the <Church on the Rock appeared at 2-1507 East Cliff in East Cliff Village, Live Oak.  In 1995 the Live Oak church ceased to be listed, but the Pacific Christian Fellowship, as noted below, appeared in its place.  These dates are from the Yellow Pages, where the church, like the Church on the Rock in Watsonville, was under the heading Charismatic.


Church on the Rock. Watsonville, 1991-1999.

In 1991 a church with this name appeared at 185 Westridge Dr. Watsonville.  Then, in 1997, the church on Westridge Dr. began to be called <Watsonville Believers Christian Fellowship, but it no longer appeared in 2000.  These dates are from the Yellow Pages, where the church, like the Church on the Rock in Live Oak, was under the heading Charismatic


Pacific Christian Fellowship. Live Oak, 1993-2010.

            Founded in 1993, ( 2007), this church was at 2-1507 East Cliff (East Cliff Village) in 1995 and 1996 according to the Yellow Pages, but in 1997 it was at 2245 Capitola Road, Santa Cruz 95062, tel. 462-5064), where it was through 2006. (1997 and 2006 Yellow Pages)

            Since 2007, when the sign in front of the church was changed to read "<Freedom House Church," the International Pentecostal Holiness Church website,, has listed this congregation.  The 2010 Yellow Pages call the church Freedom House and they categorize the congregation as "Charismatic.”



#7.6    Pentecostal Church of God of America


            The churches under this heading are affiliated with the Pentecostal Church of God of America, the headquarters of which are in Joplin, Missouri. ( 2010) The denomination  was founded by a group of ministers who left the Assemblies of God in 1916, (Anderson, Pentecostalism, p. 56) although the church’s website has 1919 as the year of its founding.  The Pentecostal Church of God is Baptistic and Trinitarian, terms explained in Chapter 5 Particulars.

            The Pentecostal Church of God of America became incorporated in Santa Cruz County in 1943, although its original place of business was to be Monterey County. (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 1838)


Calvary Christian Center. Watsonville, 1955-2010.

            This congregation was listed in the 1983 Yellow  Pages and the SC Sentinel, July 26, 1984.  It is at 524 Rogge St., Watsonville 95076, tel. 728-4040, (2010 Yellow Pages as Calvary Christian Church) and it is included in the Pentecostal Church of God website, 2010.

One supposes that this was the same congregation as the <Pentecostal Church of God at 1201 Lincoln St., Watsonville in Polk 1955; at 9 Brooklyn St., Watsonville in Polk 1960; at 527 Center St., Watsonville in Polk 1961-1964; and at 524 Rogge St in Polk 1969 through 1989.


Harbor Light Church. Live Oak, 1955-2010.

             According to Polk 1955 and 1960 <Bethel Chapel was the name of the church where Harbor Light is now found.  In Polk 1964 and 1970 the <Pentecostal Church of God was there, but the name was <Harbor Light Gospel Tabernacle in Polk 1974 as well as the SC Sentinel, July 26, 1984.  The address is 2008 17th Ave., Santa Cruz 95062, tel. 475-7763. (2010 Yellow Pages)


#7.7    Various Pentecostal


Bethel Tabernacle. Watsonville, 1921-2010.

            Founded in 1921 on the present site, (clipping – source lacking – in Pajaro Valley Historical Association Archives) this is the oldest existing Pentecostal congregation in Santa Cruz County.  It is listed in the Pajaronian, Jan. 6, 1923 without an address and in the Santa Cruz County Directory for 1923-24 with its present address.  A plaque on its faćade states that it was dedicated on April 20, 1922.  The address is 124 East Lake Ave., Watsonville 95076, tel. 724-7418. (2010 Yellow Pages)


Apostolic Assembly. Watsonville, 1935-2010.

            This church is at 113 E. Front St., Watsonville 95076, tel. 728-5228. (2010 White Pages)

            The <Apostolic Church was at 113 E. Front St., Watsonville in Polk 1969 through 1989.  It appears that its linear antecedents were <Full Gospel Tabernacle, 115 Van Ness Ave., (Polk 1935) < Apostolic (Mexican) Church, 117 Van Ness Ave., (Polk 1946) and <Iglesia Apostolica De La Fe En Cristo Jesus, 113 E Front St. (Polk 1960-62)  It also appears that the <Apostolic Assembly of the Faith in Christ Jesus, 113 E. Front St., Watsonville, listed in the SC Sentinel. July 26, 1984, was the very same congregation.  In 2007, however, the website of the Apostolic Assembly of the Faith in Christ Jesus,, did not list a congregation at 113 E. Front St., and in 2010 this website domain is not that of a church or denomination.


Mt. Olive Temple Church of God in Christ. Monterey County, 1946-2010.

            Listed in the SC Sentinel, July 26, 1984, this appears to be the continuation of the <Church of God in Christ at 61 Union St. in Polk 1946 and at 201 Gonda St. in Polk 1955.  In Polk 1967 it appears, under its present name, at 116 Salinas Road, but Polk 1973 has it at the current address.  This congregation appears to be the successor, probably by merger, with the <Good Samaritan Church of God in Christ, which is listed at 20 Salinas Road in Polk 1960 through 1972.  Its present address is 20 Salinas Road, Watsonville 95076, tel. 724-0855. (2010 White Pages)


Calvary Community Church. Watsonville, 1946-2010.

The original location of this church, named <Calvary Full Gospel Mission, was 140 Main St., Watsonville. (Polk 1946-50)  <Calvary Mission, 23 Porter Dr., Watsonville (Polk 1960) and <Calvary Full Gospel Church, 23 Porter Dr. (Polk 1964) appear to be continuations of the same congregation.

Since 1975 Calvary Community Church has been listed at 8145 Prunedale North Road. (1975 through 2007 Yellow Pages and 2010)  The last of these listings gives the church’s location as Salinas, rather than Watsonville, and this seems to be accurate since 1975.


Word of Life Church of God in Christ. Santa Cruz. 1966-2010.

            In 1966 this congregation was called <All Nations Church of God in Christ, (1966 Yellow Pages) and it was incorporated as such in 1977. (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 4420)  In 1970 and 1980, however, it was called <Church of God in Christ. (Polk 1970 and 1980)  It appears to be affiliated with the Church of God in Christ of Memphis, Tennessee, the only existing congregation so affiliated in Santa Cruz County. It is at 231 Wilkes Cir., Santa Cruz 95060, tel. 427-1903. (2010 White Pages)


Valley Vineyard Church. Scotts Valley, 1996-2010.        

At 224 Mt. Hermon Road, Scotts Valley 95066, tel. 438-3456, (2010 Yellow Pages, where it is listed under "Churches-Non-Denominational") this is a member of the Association of Vineyard Churches. ( 2010)  It has been at its present location since 1996. (1996-2010 Yellow Pages)   I surmise that the <Vineyard Christian Church at 5274 Scotts Valley Dr. in 1995 (1995 White Pages), was the forerunner of Valley Vineyard.

In 1977 John Wimber founded a congregation, the Calvary Chapel of Yorba Linda, California, but in 1982 his group separated from the Calvary Chapel movement over the role of the manifestations of the Holy Spirit, which are central to the Vineyard movement.  At that time he joined the Vineyard Movement, which was small, but in 2010 there are over 550 Vineyard churches in the United States, over 1,500 in the world. ( 2010. 

See #10, Independent Fundamentalist Family for the Calvary Chapel movement.


Iglesia de Jesucristo Israel. Watsonville, 1997?-2010.

            This congregation met in 2007 and 2008, through September, at 20 Salinas Road in Pajaro, tel. 728-5737. (Yellow Pages)  In 2010, however, its address is 480 Union St., Watsonville. (2010 Yellow Pages)  Both the S.C. Sentinel and the Yellow Pages characterized it as “Apostolic,” which indicates that it is Pentecostal.


Hope Ministries. Watsonville, 1999-2004. 

            The Yellow Pages placed this congregation under "Churches-Apostolic," a heading which indicates the Pentecostal family. It was at 18 West Lake Ave., Watsonville 95076, tel. 728-2370. (1999 through 2004 Yellow Pages)


Victory Outreach Church. Watsonville, 1996-2010.

            According to its website, 2010, Victory Outreach is a Pentecostal denomination founded in 1967 by Sonny Arguinzoni for general Christian evangelization and specifically "to plant and develop churches, rehabilitation homes, and training centers in strategic cities of the world."  Its greatest numerical strength is in California and Mexico.

            In the 1996 through 2008 White Pages, from 1996 to 1999 Victory Outreach Church was at 24 Menker St., Watsonville and from 2000 to 2006 it was at 200 Union St., Watsonville, but in 2007 and 2008 it was not listed.  Nevertheless 2010 states that both <Victory Outreach Watsonville (Hispanic), tel. 831-539-6249, and <Victory Outreach Watsonville (Pajaro Valley), tel. 831-722-4812 are at 734 East Lake Ave., Suite 15.


Christians for Biblical Equality. Santa Cruz County Chapter. Service org, Santa Cruz City, 2004-2010.

This association was founded in 1988 to promote equal treatment for women among Christians.  Headquartered in Minneapolis, and including both individuals and churches as members, it belongs as an organization to the National Association of Evangelicals  The Santa Cruz chapter is mentioned in the SC Sentinel, June 19, 2004, and its address, 616 Windham St., Santa Cruz 95062, is on the organization's website. 2010, which contains sufficient references to the gifts of the Holy Spirit to persuade me to place it in the Pentecostal family.


Emmaus Christian Center. Conf center,  Santa Clara County, 2005-2006.

            This facility at 520 Summit Rd., Watsonville 95076, tel. 408-848-2866. was listed on the website under this name and also under <Church of Emmaus in 2005 and 2006.  Both entries were among "Other" in the long website lists of Korean churches in the broad San Francisco area.  This rules out the possibility that the group is Catholic, Presbyterian, Baptist, Episcopalian, Evangelical, Adventist, or Methodist, and so I conclude that it is most probably Pentecostal.

            In 2005 I located its entrance on Summit Road, 2.4 miles North of the beginning of the road, on the Santa Clara County side.

            In 2010 it is not listed in the White Pages, and the website 2010 does not allow me to use English.

            In 2011 the owners of the property declared that the Emmaus Christian Center is no longer there.


Harbor Fellowship. Santa Cruz, 2005?-2010.

            This congregation meets at 1231 Bay Street, tel. 334-1413.  It is associated with Grace International of Houston, Texas, with which it shares an evangelical, Pentecostal creed. ( 2010)  It is a congregation of the Christian Evangelistic Assemblies. (SC Sentinel, Oct. 1, 2006)  The Christian Evangelistic Assemblies were formerly known as the California Evangelistic Association. (Melton, Encyclopedia, *317)


Crossroads Community Church of God. Watsonville, 2006-2010.

            In 2006 the White Pages listed a <Church of God at 48 Atkinson Lane, telephone 728-5497.  In January, 2007 I observed that the sign on the church structure at that address read Crossroads Community Church of God.  The website of the Church of God of Cleveland, Tennessee, calling it <Watsonville-Crossroads Community, listed it as an affiliate with the address, P. O. Box 206, Watsonville, and the same telephone number, 728-5497.  In 2010 the website,, has the same information, but no street address.


Iglesia de Dios Santa Cruz. Live Oak, 2006-2010.

            The Church of God of Cleveland, Tennessee has listed this church, which it locates on 30th Avenue with no telephone number, since 2006 on its website,  In 2010,however, I find it listed on, the website of the Church of God Northwestern Hispanic Region, the headquarters of which are in Fresno.  This website gives the address, 1275 Brommer St., although it asserts that it is in Capitola, and the telephone number, 728-4041.  The Fresno group website does not indicate, as far as I can see, its relationship with the Cleveland, Tennessee body.


Apostolic Light House Mission Church. Santa Cruz, 2007-2008.

            This church, as I observed in 2007 and 2008, is at 530 S. Branciforte, tel. 423-7506.  Its sign states that it is of the Apostolic Assembly of the Faith in Christ Jesus, and this was confirmed in 2008, which, in addition to the church identification, described the Pentecostal nature of the denomination.  In 2010 the church is neither on the Apostolic Assembly website nor in the White or Yellow Pages.

            The structure at 530 S. Branciforte housed the Light & Life Community Free Methodist Church from 1955 to 1975. (See #5.2.)


#8     European Free-Church (European Free-Church family)



                        #8.1    Quaker

                        #8.2    Mennonite Brethren


            As the Reformed Churches in Europe took shape in the sixteenth century they tended to become territorial.  It was difficult, it seems, for the populace to feel comfortable with a multiplicity of religious beliefs in one place.  From the beginning, however, some groups in central Europe were stoutly non-conformist.  Of these some were conspicuous for their pietism, and so they have been placed in the Pietist-Methodist family, whereas others were more noted for the non-conformity: they were free of state control.  None of the latter groups was ever large in the United States, and none has had a commanding presence in Santa Cruz, but two of them are found here, Quakers and Mennonite Brethren.


#8.1    Quaker


            Since the 1650s in both England and America the Quakers, or, more properly, the <Friends, or <Society of Friends, has been generically Christian in doctrine and positively spiritual in its meetings, which may or may not resemble the worship services of others, but which, in any case, involve individual and group recognition of a divine "inner light" that is also invoked in making community decisions.  Resolutely egalitarian, Quakers have exerted social and educational influence far greater than their numbers would warrant.


Quaker Center. Conf center, Ben Lomond, 1949-2010.

            At 1000 Hubbard Gulch Road, PO Box 686, Ben Lomond 95005, tel. 336-8333, ( 2010) this facility was established by the Society of Friends in 1949 as Camp Ben Lomond for boys.  It shared its property with Sequoia Seminar from 1950 to 1977, when the latter became totally distinct; it was incorporated as the <Ben Lomond Quaker Center in 1981.  This and additional historical information can be found in the Quaker Center website.


Quaker Meeting House. Santa Cruz, 1958-2010.

The church structure at 225 Rooney St., Santa Cruz 95065, tel. 425-4563, has been the Quaker Meeting House since 2003. (Yellow Pages)  The Christian and Missionary Alliance Church, which is found in #6.2, under the Holiness Family, had been there through 2001.

            Presumably the present meeting house is the successor to the Quaker Meeting House at 231 Forest in Polk 1958 through 1961.

            In 2010 the White Pages have “Quaker Meeting House,” but the Yellow Pages have “Santa Cruz Friends Meeting.”

            #8.2    Mennonite Brethren


            The Mennonite movement, which originated in Central Europe in the early years of Protestantism, stresses "godly living," which can go beyond merely rigorous codes of morals to living in separated communities of the godly.  One thinks of Amish and Hutterites.


Shorelife Community Church. Capitola, 1975-2010.

            According to its website, 2010, this congregation, affiliated with the Mennonite Brethren, was established in 1997.  It was, however, incorporated as the <Mennonite Brethren of Santa Cruz in 1970, with a name change in 1971 to <Cliffwood Heights Neighborhood Church –- Mennonite Brethren. (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 3361)

            The congregation was listed as <Cliffwood Heights Neighborhood Church in Polk 1975 and 1980 and as the <Cliffwood Heights Neighborhood Church of the Mennonite Brethren in the SC Sentinel, July 26, 1984.  It is located at 875 Monterey Ave., Capitola 95010, tel. 462-7490. (2010 Yellow Pages, where it is listed under "Community Churches.")


#9  Baptist and Christian Church (Baptist family)



                        #9.1    Various Baptist; no longer in existence

                        #9.2    Southern Baptist Convention

                        #9.3    American Baptist Churches U.S.A.

                        #9.4    American Baptist Association

                        #9.5    Conservative Baptist Association

                        #9.6    Baptist: exist in 2010; affiliation not ascertained

                        #9.7    Christian Church/Church of Christ


            The Baptist group of churches is the largest religious body in the United States after the Roman Catholic Church.  Baptists are "anti-authoritarian, lay-oriented, non-liturgical, non-creedal, they oppose state churches, and they baptize adult believers, not infants." (Melton, Encyclopedia, p. 57)  Tracing their origin back to the founding of a Baptist church in England in 1611, they are historically related to both the European Free-Churches and to British Puritanism, but they have been less exclusive than these and more ready to interact socially and politically.  Furthermore, they have historically been active in revivalism, and they have tended to be both fundamentalist and evangelical.  Even their defining characteristic, baptism by immersion in water, is not limited to them, but it does symbolize their Bible-based faith.  The Baptist group stands in the middle of traditionalist, "old fashioned" Protestant religion of the heart, as is shown by the recent phenomenon of dropping the title "Baptist Church" in favor of "Community Church."   Although there are many species of Baptists in the United States, the largest by far is the Southern Baptist Convention. The division of Baptists into Northern and Southern took place before the Civil War, and has never been undone.  Generally the Southern Baptists lean more toward the Calvinistic Christian worldview than their northern counterparts do.  Otherwise some associations of Baptist churches are more explicitly fundamentalist than others.

            In California San Jose quickly became a hub of Baptist activities for the Salinas and Santa Clara Valleys and Santa Cruz, where a Baptist church was established in 1858. (Robert S. Hamilton, Jr., The History and Influence of the Baptist Church in California, 1848-1899. Los Angeles: University of Southern California Ph.D. dissertation, 1953, p. 105)  Santa Cruz's first Baptist church, now called Santa Cruz Community Church, is listed below, in #9.3.  It is noteworthy that the early Baptists in Northern California were mainly pro-Union in the Civil War.  In San Jose, however, allegiances were quite divided, and in 1853 the members pledged to avoid all discussion of the matter. (Hamilton, op. cit., p. 106)  It would be interesting to know if this had repercussions in Santa Cruz.

            Following Melton, Encyclopedia, as explained in Chapter 1 Background and Method of this Study, I place the Christian Church/ Church of Christ (and Disciples of Christ) in the Baptist Family.  This is not to deny differences between the groups.

#9.1    Various Baptist no longer in existence


Temple Grove Baptist Church. Santa Clara County, 1876-1895?

            "One of the first gatherings [in the Santa Cruz Mountains Summit Area] was at the Temple Grove Baptist Church in 1876.  The church has long since vanished, but the solitary grove of redwoods stands today on Loma Prieta Avenue above the site of the Jeffries Hotel - also torn down.  S. N. Reed was the founder of the church, which later moved to the residence of Reverend A. E. Sears." (Stephen Payne, A Howling Wilderness; The Summit Road of the Santa Cruz Mountains 1850-1906, pp. 88-89)

            This church, “The Baptist church [on Wright’s Ridge] is at present [1895] without a pastor.” (Sunshine, Fruit and Flowers, A Souvenir of The San Jose Mercury, San Jose: San Jose Mercury Publishing and Printing Co., 1889, p. 194)

            On page 91 Payne relates that "In the late 1890's a Baptist chapel was built at 'Oak Hill,'" but this is otherwise unknown to me.


Branciforte Baptist Church. Santa Cruz, 1887-1906.

Incorporated in 1888 as the Branciforte Baptist Church, (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 150) this small church originally stood on a lot donated for it by Calvin Gault. (SC Surf, Aug. 27, 1887)  According to the McHugh Scrapbook, Vol. 1, p. 16, the lot was on Seabright Ave., where the Gault School now stands, and later (date not stated) the church structure was moved physically to Pennsylvania Ave., near Soquel Ave. (now 429 Pennsylvania Ave)

The McHugh Scrapbook calls the church the <Second Baptist Church, as does the SC Surf of March 4, 1893.  It is a fact that a Second Baptist Church was incorporated in 1889 without reference to the Branciforte Baptist Church. (Santa Cruz County Articles of incorporation no. 153)  These two separate and distinct incorporations could mean that there truly were, or were intended to be, two Baptist Churches in the same area for a short while.

In 1906 the Branciforte church building was sold to the Seventh Day Adventists. (SC Sentinel, June 28, 1954)

After the original Baptists, the later occupants of the building have been:


1906-1954 Seventh Day Adventist (#11.3)

1954-1960 St. Stephen's Lutheran Church (#3.1)

1961-1969 or 1970 Orthodox Presbyterian Church (#4.1)

1970-1988 First Church of Religious Science (Center for Conscious Living) (#15.2)

1992-2003 Santa Cruz Chapel (Foursquare Gospel) (#7.3)

            2004-2006 A private residence (See Santa Cruz Chapel entry)


Twin Lakes Baptist Resort. Conf center, Live Oak, 1890-1955.

            In the Twin Lakes area, now part of Live Oak, this church and buildings served as the locale for the annual state Baptist meeting in the 1890s. (Francis, History, pp. 57-58)  As time went on much of the 41 acres was sold off in small lots, and by 1955 its character as a religious resort had been lost, although the second of the Twin Lakes Churches connected with it was still where it had been since 1949. (article dated 1/1/55 on page 45 of The McHugh Scrapbook, vol. 3)


Chinese Mission Baptist Church. Watsonville, 1953-1961.

At 14 Wall St. in Polk 1953, this church moved its meeting place about 1957 to 17a 3rd St., where it remained until 1961. (Polk 1957-61)


St. Paul Baptist Church. Watsonville, 1955-1967.

According to Polk 1955 this church was at 32 Van Ness Ave., but then in Polk 1964 and 1967 it was at 100 Union St.


Emmanuel Baptist Church. Santa Cruz, 1955-1970.

This church was at 508 Seabright Ave., Santa Cruz, (Polk 1955) but according to Polk 1960 and 1970 there was an Emmanuel Baptist Church at 707 Fair Ave., Santa Cruz.   It would seem that there was one congregation by this name: it moved and then it disappeared or merged with another Baptist congregation, but I have no further information about it.


Baptist Church in Ben Lomond. 1959-1990s.

            A branch of Twin Lakes (Baptist) Church, founded in 1959, this congregation had a church structure built for it in 1961.  The congregation was still in existence in the 1990s, (McCarthy, Grizzlies, pp. 93-94) but it is not listed in the 1993 or subsequent Yellow Pages.


Calvary Baptist Church. Aptos, 1967-1968.

            This church was at 8065 Valencia. (1967 and 1968 Yellow Pages)


Spanish Baptist Church. Watsonville, 1967.

This congregation was listed in Polk 1967 as being at 209 3rd St., and that is all I know about it.


#9.2    Southern Baptist Convention


            Decades before the Civil War the Baptists in the northern States and those in the southern states were diverging over whether or not to allow slaveholders to be missionaries and whether or not to have a central denominational organization.  Affirming a positive answer to both these issues, the Southern Baptist Convention was established in 1845, although eventually the slaveholding ceased to be an issue and the northern Baptists became more centralized.  Properly speaking, the Southern Baptist Convention did not have member congregations in California and some other Western states until well into the twentieth century.  Southern Baptists, however, were present and sufficiently numerous for the San Joaquin Valley Missionary Baptist Association to form a State Southern Baptist Convention on September 13, 1940. (1)  It seems that it was a while before the State Convention was accepted into the general structure of the the American Baptist community. (2)


1.         Floyd Looney, History of California Southern Baptists, Fresno: 1954, p. 24. 

2.         Eldon G. Ernst, in Pilgrim Progression, p. 95, specifies that the fourteen churches of the San Joaquin Valley Missionary Baptist Association "were officially accepted by the Southern Baptist Convention" in 1941. James N. Gregory, in American Exodus, p. 206, also has 1941 for California, but Ferenc Morton Szasz, Religion in the Modern American West, pp. 108-109, leads us to believe that the organizational structure of Southern Baptists in the West was not complete until 1952.


Arthur Road Baptist Church. Watsonville, 1947-2010.

            This congregation was founded in 1947 as the <Calvary Southern Baptist Church. (1) Also called the <Calvary Baptist Church, it was originally located at 524 Rogge St., but, following the dissolution of the Chapel Hill Presbyterian Church on Arthur Road in 1967, it moved to that location. (2)  In 1955 and at least through 1967 it was called the <First Southern Baptist Church. (3)  The present church is at 360 Arthur Road, Watsonville 95076, tel. 724-6885. (4)  It is affiliated with the Southern Baptist Convention. (5)

            At the same Arthur Road address, founded in 1986, also affiliated with the Southern Baptist Convention, is the <Mision Bautista Hispana.  The latter is listed explicitly, but not as a separate congregation, in the Sothern Baptist Convention website (6).


1.         Floyd Looney, History of California Southern Baptists, Fresno: 1954, p. 407.

2.         Watsonville Yesterday, p. 97.

3.         Polk 1955 and 1967.

4.         2010 Yellow Pages

5. 2010

6. 2010.


Capitola Community Church. 1949-2010.

            The Southern Baptist Convention includes this congregation as an affiliate. ( 2010)  In 2008 the website stated that the church was founded in 1949.

Meeting at first in the Capitola City Hall, 422 Capitola Ave. under the name <First Baptist Church of Capitola, (Polk 1950) the congregation dedicated its own structure in 1953 at the corner of Capitola Road and 46th Ave. (SC Sentinel, Mar. 6, 1953)  It has remained at that site ever since.  In 1984 it was still using its original name, (SC Sentinel, July 26, 1984); some time after that it changed to the present name.  The address is 4575 Capitola Road, Capitola 95010, tel. 475-7484. (2010 Yellow Pages)

It is hard to suppose that the <First Southern Baptist Church of Santa Cruz, Calif., incorporated in 1958 (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation  no.2101) was not the same as the <First Southern Baptist Church which was at 1315 Bulb Ave. according to Polk 1982-83 and the SC Sentinel, July 26, 1984.  I do not know how they (it?) were related to the Capitola Community Church.


First Baptist Church of Aptos. 1956-2010.

            Construction on this congregation's building was to start soon, according to the Nov. 14, 1957  SC Sentinel, which also stated that the congregation had been, since 1956, a mission of the First Baptist Church of Freedom.  The 1975 Yellow Pages and Polk 1980 gave 7667 Soquel Dr. as the address.  The Southern Baptist Convention's website, 2010, states that this church is located at 7565 Sunset Way, Aptos 95003, tel. 688-5842.

At the same address, tel. 427-0335, founded in 2002, and also affiliated with the Southern Baptist Convention according to the latter's website in 2010, is the <Iglesia Bautista Nueva Vida.  Previously, according to the SBC website, the latter congregation met at the Capitola Community Church.


Principe de Paz. Watsonville, 1958-2010.

            The earliest Baptist congregation to use the site which became that of the Principe de Paz was the <First Baptist Church of Freedom. (Polk 1958-1989) The 1975 and 1976 Yellow Pages list this as <First Southern Baptist Church of Freedom.  Later, the church property was taken over by the Central Coast Baptist Association, which established a Spanish-speaking mission in it in 2002. (SC Sentinel, June 19, 2006)  In the 2007 Yellow Pages the church was <Iglesia Bautista Emmanuel.  Now called <Principe De Paz Baptist Church on the Southern Baptist Convention's website, 2010, the church, as stated in the website, is at 40 Blanca Lane, tel. 931-768-1152.  The site is shared with the New Birth Baptist Church, which is listed below.


First Baptist Church of Las Lomas. Monterey County, 1960-2010.

            Founded in 1960, this congregation is affiliated with the Southern Baptist Convention. ( 2010)

            In June, 2006 the congregation moved from its structure on Sill Road to "leased space in a former Prunedale restaurant."  With it went the <New Life Community Church, which was founded in 2003 as a nondenominational congregation.  The New Life Community Church began to use the Sill Road structure in 2004, and practically, although not formally, merged with the Baptist congregation.  The Central Coast Baptist Association, owners of the Sill Road property, however, announced that it had other plans for it. (SC Sentinel, June 19, 2006)

The First Baptist Church's building, which is at 47 Sill Road, Watsonville 95076, tel. 768-9826, was still listed as the <Las Lomas First Baptist Church in the Southern Baptist Convention website,, in 2010.  The New Life Community Church moved to Prunedale by 2008. ( 2008).

For the new Southern Baptist congregation which is also at the 47 Sill Road church see Iglesia del Rey below.


Calvary Baptist Church. Live Oak, 1960-1970.

This congregation met at 1925 Chanticleer Ave., Live Oak, according to Polk 1960-70.  The 1961 through 1966 Yellow Pages classified it as Southern Baptist.


Boulder Creek Community Church. 1965-2010.

            The present congregation was founded in 1965, and it has been affiliated with the Southern Baptist Convention from at least 1983. (1983 Yellow Pages and 2010)  It was called the <First Baptist Church of Boulder Creek in the Santa Cruz Sentinel, July 26, 1984.  The present address is 13090 Highway 9, Boulder Creek 95006, tel. 338-3700 according to the 2010 Yellow Pages, where it is listed under Non-Denominational rather than Southern or other Baptist.  Its current website, 2010, does not mention Southern Baptist at all.  This website specifies that the 13090 address is of the church office, whereas the address of the church itself is 12465 Highway 9.

Possibly the existing congregation is at least related to the <Community Church-Boulder Creek that was holding services according to the Santa Cruz News, July 24, 1923.


Grace Baptist Church. Corralitos, 1965-1996.

According to Malmin, Corralitos, p. 118, ground was broken for the church in 1967.  The Yellow Pages for 1993-1995 placed it at 127 Hames Road and listed it as Southern Baptist.  In 1996 the Yellow Pages listed it, but no longer as Southern Baptist, and that was the last year it was listed at all.

<Grace Baptist Church of Watsonville, Calif., incorporated in 1965, (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no.2897) would, I surmise, refer to the origins of the same congregation.


Iglesia del Rey. Watsonville, 2006-2010.

            In the former location of the First Baptist Church of Las Lomas, 47 Sill Road, Watsonville, the Iglesia del Rey, an affiliate of the Southern Baptist Convention, was established in 2006.  This is in addition to the Las Lomas First Baptist Church at that address.  The website 2010 gives this information and the address, but no telephone number.


New Birth Baptist Church. Watsonville, 2009-2010.

            Early in 2009 the <New Beginnings Community Church was established in temporary quarters in Santa Cruz. (SC Sentinel Dec. 27, 2008)  Before the end of the year it had modified its name to New Birth Baptist and had moved to a permanent location in Watsonville, 40 Blanca Lane. (SC Sentinel Dec 19, 2009)  Its tel. is 333-6620, and it shares its location with Principe de Paz.  Both churches belong to the Southern Baptist Convention. ( 2010)


#9.3    American Baptist Churches U.S.A.


            Of the numerous Baptist groups, the American Baptist Churches U.S.A. comes closest to being the lineal descendant of the early Baptist movement in the country, although it has undergone several name changes, including being called the Northern Baptist Convention.  It now represents only a small and liberal segment of the general Baptist community.


Santa Cruz Community Church.  1858-2010.

            This congregation was organized in 1858 as the <First Baptist Church of Santa Cruz, and the 2004 listing is the first time it is called Santa Cruz Community Church in the Yellow Pages.  "Its first church structure was erected in 1867 on high land on Locust Street, but in 1887 it was moved down to the plain, at Walnut and Center, where it was more accessible to the townsfolk," (1)  Its present structure, on Roxas Street, was dedicated in 1960, (2) although its address four years later was 504 Trevethan Avenue (cross street to Roxas). (3)  Note that for a while, at least in the 1970s, it was known as the <First American Baptist Church. (4)  It is affiliated with the American Baptist Churches U.S.A., (5) and it is located at 411 Roxas St., Santa Cruz 95062, tel. 423-1080. (6)  Its website is 2010.

            <Love INC Santa Cruz County is listed in the 2010 Yellow Pages under “Churches – Community” at the 411 Roxas St. address, tel. 457-1054.  Subject to obtaining further, contradictory evidence, I suppose that Love INC is a ministry of Santa Cruz Community Church rather than a separate congregation.



            1.         Francis, History, p. 23.

2,         SC Sentinel, Oct. 28, 1960.

3.         Polk 1964.

4.         Polk 1970 and 1980.

5. 2010.

6.         2010 Yellow Pages.


#9.4    American Baptist Association

            Organized in 1905, this Baptist body maintains that Christian congregations, in order to be true to their mission, should be fundamentalist and autonomous; that "no universal church or ecclesiastical authority is higher than a local congregation." (Mead, Handbook, p. 55)  Furthermore, members believe that "their faith preceded the Protestant Reformation, and indeed has a continued succession from Christ and the apostles." (Mead, loc. cit.) They point to their place in a lineage of Christian movements that were similar to one another in their opposition to the hierarchical church, starting with Montanists in the second century A. D. and including, in chronological order, Novatians, Donatists, Paulicians, Waldenses, and Anabaptists. (Melton, Encyclopedia *503)

            The term "Landmark," was given the movement by its founders, James Madison Pendleton and James Robinson Graves. (Mead, Handbook, p. 67)


Landmark Missionary Baptist Church. Watsonville, 1958-2010.

            The earliest listing for this congregation in Polk is 1958.  It is now at 2151 Freedom Blvd., Watsonville 95076, tel. 722-2100. (2010 Yellow Pages)

In 2005 it was included on the website of the American Baptist Association,, but since 2006 this was no longer the case. ( 2007 and 2010)


Bayside Baptist Church. Santa Cruz, 1968-2010.

Incorporated in 1968 as the <Landmark Missionary Baptist Church of Santa Cruz, (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 3101) this congregation was listed as <Landmark Baptist Church or <Landmark Missionary Baptist Church from its establishment through 2005. (Polk 1971-1982-83 and 2002-2005 Yellow Pages)

From 1971 through 1980 it was at 2155 Chanticleer Ave., but by 1982 it had moved (Polk 1971-1982-83) to its present address, which is 1335 Seabright Ave., Santa Cruz, tel. 423-8536. (2010 Yellow Pages)

Three other congregations have been at 1335 Seabright Ave.: Church of the Nazarene, Christ Temple, and Universal Life Church.  See the entries for each of these in #6.4, #7.4, and #12.3 respectively.


#9.5    Conservative Baptist Association


            The Conservative Baptist Association was formally established as a distinct set of Baptist congregations in 1947 by fundamentalist members of the American Baptist Convention (previously the Northern Baptist Convention mentioned in #9.3). (Mead, Handbook, pp. 62-63)  Its website is 2010.


Twin Lakes Church. Aptos, 1891-2010.

The "Little Brown Church by the Sea" was founded in 1891. (1)  Its first church structure, built in 1890 [sic], had a capacity of 300. (2)  A notable edifice on the Southwest corner of Eighth Avenue and Park Place in the Twin Lakes area, it was known as the <Baptist Tabernacle. (3)  This structure was torn down in 1949, shortly after a new 600 person capacity one was completed at the Northwest corner of Eighth Avenue and Bobbie Street. (4)  This latter structure still exists, incorporated into a complex of health treatment facilities with the address 200 Park Place. (5)  Polk's address listing while it was the Baptist church varied: in 1950 and 1955 it was at 225 8th Ave.; in 1964 it was at 200 7th Ave.  The congregation itself moved to its present address in 1973, (6) and this is 2701 Cabrillo College Dr., Aptos 95003, tel. 465-3300. (7)

In 1946 the congregation affiliated with the Conservative Baptist Association, (8) and it remains a member of it in 2010. (9)



            1. 2010.

2.         SC Sentinel, Mar. 1, 1949.

3.         Live Oak Walking Tour - Historic Twin Lakes," undated pamphlet of the Live Oak History Project being distributed in 2005.

4.         SC Sentinel, Mar. 1, 1949.

            5.         I have seen the long, high structure from the street in


            6.         SC Sentinel, Sep. 9, 1973.

7.         2010 Yellow Pages.

8.         Sandy Lydon, "The Mystery of the Pajaro Valley KKK," SC Sentinel, Jan. 24, 1993.

            9. 2010.


First Baptist Church of Watsonville. 1914-2010.

                        The earliest mention I have found for this congregation is in the list of church services in the Pajaronian, Jan. 2, 1915.  The same issue of the paper also notes that the congregation held its first annual meeting on December 31, 1914.

            Polk 1925 gave the address as "Lincoln se cor E 5th;" and Polk 1930 and 1946, listed it at "640 Lincoln."  The present structure was dedicated in 1952. ("Dedication Services of the First Baptist Church Watsonville California March 23-30, 1952." Pamphlet in the archives of the Pajaro Valley Historical Association)

            The Conservative Baptist Association of America lists it as a member on its website, 2010.

            The address is Fifth and Lincoln or 101 Madison, Watsonville 95076, and the telephone number is 724-1311. (2010 Yellow Pages)


Aromas Bible Church. Monterey County, 1953-2010.

            In the 1953 through 1998 Yellow Pages this church was the <Aromas Community Baptist Church.  Its address is 263 Carpenteria Road, Aromas 95004, tel. 726-2850. (2010 Yellow Pages)  It is affiliated with the Conservative Baptist Association. ( 2010)


Gateway Bible Church. Scotts Valley, 1959-2010.

Formed in 2001 by a merger of the <Scotts Valley Bible Church with the <Granite Creek Community Church, the new congregation then used the facility of the Granite Creek Church. (SC Sentinel, Sep. 14, 2003)

The Granite Creek Community Church had formerly been called the <First Baptist Church of Scotts Valley, (SC Sentinel, July 26, 1984) or, according to its incorporation in 1959, <Scotts Valley Baptist Church of Santa Cruz, California. (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 2261)

The Gateway Bible Church is located at 5000 Granite Creek Road, Scotts Valley 95066, tel. 438-0646. (2010 Yellow Pages)

            This congregation is listed as a member of the Conservative Baptist Association of America on the latter's website, 2010. Its website, 2010, although stating its articles of faith, mentions nothing about Baptist affiliation.


First Baptist Church of San Lorenzo Valley.  Felton, c1960-2010.

            This congregation was established around 1960 and the church was built around 1966. (Valley Press, Nov. 12, 1986)  In 1986 the building was enlarged. (Valley Press, Jan. 21, 1987)  The congregation is a member of the Conservative Baptist Association of America. (, 2010)  It is located at 7301 Highway 9, Felton 95018, tel. 335-4457. (2010 Yellow Pages and 2010)


High Street Community Church. Santa Cruz, 1962-2010.

            The <University Baptist Church of Santa Cruz was incorporated in 1962. (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 2587)  According to Polk 1964 the address of the <University Baptist Church was 517 Mission St., Santa Cruz.  In 1970 it had moved to its present location, but it was still called the University Baptist Church, (Polk 1970) and it had this name through 1998. (1998 and 1999 Yellow Pages)   Its location is 850 High St., Santa Cruz 95060, tel. 426-0207. (2010 Yellow Pages)

            The congregatiion is a member of the Conservative Baptist Association of America, ( 2010) but its own website, 2010, has nothing about affiliation and little about doctrine.  The High Street Community Church is, in 2010, the only member of the Conservative Baptist Association of America to list itself as such in the Yellow Pages.


Baymonte Christian School. Scotts Valley, 1968-2010.

            Elementary school founded in 1968. ( 2010)  Also states on its website that it is independent and interdenominational, but I place it here because of its location with the Gateway Bible Church, which is to say that it is at 5000B Granite Creek Road, Scotts Valley 95066, tel. 438-0100. (2010 Yellow Pages)


Camp Hammer.  Conf center, Santa Cruz County, 1968-2010.

Camp Hammer was founded between 1960 and 1971, in which latter year it was given to Twin Lakes (Baptist) Church.  (SC Sentinel, Oct. 1, 2003)  The first year it was listed in the White Pages was 1968.  It is located at 21401 Big Basin Hwy. (California Route 236), Boulder Creek 95006, tel. 338-3200. (2010 White Pages)  Open for groups from May to September, it states fundamentalist tenets and it has deacons and deaconesses. ( 2010)


Twin Lakes Christian School. Aptos, 1981-2010.

            A kindergarten through sixth grade school, it was founded in 1981, and it is a ministry of Twin Lakes Church. ( 2010)  It is to be found at 2701 Cabrillo College Dr., Aptos 95003, tel. 465-3301. (2010 Yellow Pages)


#9.6    Baptist: exist in 2010; affiliation, if any, not ascertained

            The following Baptist congregations are apparently not related to any of the major Baptist groups listed above and never have been related to them.  Some of the congregations in this section, however, may have affiliations which I have not yet discovered.  Due to the theoretical independence of Baptist congregations it would not be surprising of some or all of them were totally freestanding.


Santa Cruz Missionary Baptist Church.1941-2010.

            The structure was built in 1909 as the Thomson & Gillies grocery store, became the <Church of God in 1941, the <Free Holiness Church in 1943, and the S.C. Missionary Baptist Church in 1947. (S.C. Museum of Art and History Landmark Award plaque on the building, the information for which was gathered by local historian Ross Eric Gibson)

Frank Perry, (Lighthouse Point, Santa Cruz: Otter B. Books, 2002, p. 118) explains the origin of the congregation: "After the war, [World War II] some of the veterans of the 54th [54th Coast Artillery, a regiment of African-American soldiers in a still segregated army] returned to Santa Cruz and took up residence, forming the beginnings of today's African-American community here.  Many settled in the 'circles' on the west side of town.  The small Missionary Baptist Church was established on Woodrow Avenue to meet the community's spiritual needs."

The church is at 714 Woodrow Ave., Santa Cruz 95060, tel. 458-3094. (2010 Yellow Pages)

I have no other identification for the Church of God and the Free Holiness Church which were located in this building structure for a while.  The current church is not included in the website list of churches affiliated with the National Missionary Baptist Convention of America. ( 2010)


Progressive Missionary Baptist Church. Santa Cruz, 1965-2010.

            This congregation was established in 1965 in an existing structure, (Polk 1965-66) which is at 517 Center St., Santa Cruz 95060, tel. 423-6388. (2010 Yellow Pages, where it is listed under "Baptist-Missionary")

I would like to think that the Progressive Missionary Baptist Church of Santa Cruz is affiliated with the Progressive National Baptist Convention.  This nation-wide denomination, the church of Martin Luther King, Jr. and other well-known civil rights champions, broke away from the National Baptist Convention in 1961.  I have no evidence, however of such an affiliation.

For the previous occupants of the building on Center Street see Unitarian Church in Santa Cruz under #12.1 and Santa Cruz Church of Christ under #9.7.


Liberty Baptist Church.  Live Oak, 1982-2010.

            This congregation has existed since 1982, (Polk 1982-83; not in Polk 1980; Polk 1981 not available) and it is at 2155 Chanticleer Ave. Santa Cruz 95062, tel. 476-1724. (2010 Yellow Pages)

According to its 2005 website,, it is "Independent - old Fashioned - KJV." (I presume that "kjv" in connection with this church stands for "King James Version [of the Bible]."  In 2008 the website did not seem at all to refer to this church.)

"Liberty Baptist" congregations throughout the country appear to identify with the endeavors of the Rev. Jerry Falwell, who founded Liberty Baptist College in Lynchburg, Virginia in 1971 and went on to national prominence as the founder of the "Moral Majority," a nationwide fundamentalist political force.  Liberty Baptist College has been renamed Liberty University.


#9.7 Christian Church/Church of Christ


            The Restoration Movement in America sought to restore the simplicity of early Christianity by abolishing all creeds except the Bible and by forming worshiping congregations with no denominational ties.  Pastors from several existing churches from New England to Kentucky promoted the movement, which achieved status as a body - but not as a denomination - in 1832.  In the next approximately 60 years the group grew to become one of the large, mainstream Protestant bodies.  It was best known as the Christian Church/Disciples of Christ during this period.  The U.S. Religious Census of 1890, categorizes it under Disciples of Christ.  Tensions, however, arose between liberals and conservatives.  Especially was there friction between members who believed that their religious services should not include anything that is not explicitly found in the New Testament, such as instrumental music, and those who took a broader view.

            The result of the differences was that the Christian Church/Disciples of Christ remained as one body, and those who separated from this group organized themselves into various bodies, using either name, Christian Church or Church of Christ.  At present the largest of these is the a cappella, or non-instrumental Church of Christ, which has a focal point - not a denominational headquarters - in Austin, Texas.  The central location of the Disciples of Christ is in Indianapolis, Indiana. Note that one set of Christian Churches merged with the Congregational Church in 1931, as stated above in #4.2 United Church of Christ.

            In Santa Cruz County the early congregations of the Restoration Movement were Disciples of Christ.  Later, but starting as early as 1893, other types of Christian Church were founded in the county.  The following list indicates the affiliation of each congregation, but it is not subdivided into groupings.  General sources of information about the Restoration churches are Melton, Encyclopedia, pp. 65-66 amd Meade. Handbook, pp. 94-101.  Much information is also to be had from the websites cited in the entries.

            The list of Christian Churches includes congregations which have been classified under Christian Church in newspaper and telephone directories, but about the affiliation of which I have no other information.


First Christian Church. Watsonville, c1859-2010.

            This congregation started meeting in private homes "at the head of Pajaro Valley" before 1860. In 1861 the members bought a small building and met there "to form an organization."  They moved to Watsonville "in the late sixties," purchased the property that had been the Methodist church at Lake and Rodrigues, and worshipped there "for years."  In the 1890s they started to build a new church at Lake and Main, but this burned down before it was completed.  They immediately built a new structure in the same place, but this, too, burned down in 1902. (1)

            In 1903 they built again, at Fourth and Alexander, and when this building also burned down, in 1927, (2)  they constructed, in 1928, the present church. (3)  The original address of the existing church was 325 E. Lake Ave., (4) but it is now 15 Madison St., Watsonville 95076, tel. 724-4517. (5)

            The congregation is still a member of the Disciples of Christ group. (6)



1.         E. B. Ware, History of the Disciples of Christ in California, Healdsburg, California, 1916.

2.         Koch, Parade of the Past, p. 172

3.         Pajaronian, Nov. 23, 1991

4.         Polk 1930

5.         2010 Yellow Pages

6. 2010.  The website of the congregation, 2010, contains extensive material about the history of the group.


Corralitos Christian Church. 1888-1929.

            This congregation was organized in 1888, built a church in 1889 at the corner of Amesti Road and Browns Valley Road, and when this burned down in 1893 it immediately built a new one on the same site.  In 1929 the congregation was merged with the Watsonville Christian Church, and the property in Corralitos was sold the following year. (Malmin, p. 116)

            From the relationship with the Watsonville Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), one infers that the Corralitos congregation was of the Disciples of Christ group.


Circle Church. Santa Cruz, 1890-2010.

            This church is the successor to the <Garfield Park Tabernacle, built in 1890 by the Northern California Conference of Christian Churches to seat 3,000 persons.  At that time the Christian Church/Disciples of Christ had a congregation in Watsonville, but none in Santa Cruz.  The erection of the Tabernacle was to a great extent financed by the sale of lots in the area around it.  The land had been donated to the Conference with that in mind.  The Disciples' annual State Meeting had been held in various cities until then, when Santa Cruz became its permanent home. (E. B. Ware, History of the Disciples of Christ in California, Healdsburg, California, 1916, pp. 243-246)

            The Tabernacle, which was a prominent feature of the Westside of Santa Cruz, burned down in 1935, and the present structure was dedicated in 1959.  Several newspaper articles recount this history: Santa Cruz Surf, Jan. 2, 1909; and Santa Cruz Sentinel, June 7, 1959 and May 14, 1972.  The Santa Cruz Sentinel of Nov. 7, 2007 makes it clear that the congregation, as an entity distinct from the Tabernacle, was established in 1907, and that in 2007 it has changed its name from <Garfield Park Christian Church to Circle Church. It was also called the <Church of Christ-Garfield Park by the SC Surf, June 26 and Dec. 11, 1909 and Thurston 1912-1913.

When this church was originally established as the Tabernacle the Christian Churches as a body were still the Disciples of Christ.  The congregation is still of the Disciples of Christ group. ( 2010)

Its address now is 111 Errett Cir., Santa Cruz 95060, tel. 426-0510. (2010 Yellow Pages)


Christian Church on Highway 9 in Lorenzo. Boulder Creek, 1892-1897.

            This church existed "during the 1890s, but nothing is known of its history." (McCarthy, Grizzlies, p. 87)

            It is, however, shown on the east side of Center St., now Highway 9, just south of Mountain St. on the 1892 and 1897 Sanborn Fire Insurance Maps of Boulder Creek and Lorenzo.  The 1901 map does not include its location, but the 1908 one does include it and does not show a church there.  For this information I used the online images of the maps provided in the map collection of UCSC.

            E. B. Ware, in his History of the Disciples of Christ in California, Healdsburg, California, 1916, does not mention this church.  I have no other clue to its group affiliation.


Santa Cruz Bible Church. 1893-2010.

In 1893 the Christian Church met in the YMCA Hall. (SC Surf, March 4, 1893)  Presumably this was the origin of what became known as the <First Christian Church, which was erected at the corner of Lincoln St. and Center St. between 1898 and 1900. (SC Sentinel, Aug. 4, 1957, and San Jose Mercury News, Nov. 22, 1994)  It retained that name at least through 1984. (SC Sentinel, July 26, 1984)  Note that according to Chase, Sidewalk Companion, p. 73, the structure was "built in 1896 and demolished in 1956."

            The congregation moved to its present location in 1957. (SC Sentinel, Aug. 4, 1957) In 1961, regardless of its later listing in the SC Sentinel as First Christian Church, it became the Santa Cruz Bible Church. (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 2502)  It opened its present church structure in 1996. (San Jose Mercury News, Mar. 1, 1996)  The address is 440 Frederick St. Santa Cruz 95062, tel. 429-1162. (2010 Yellow Pages)

            Calling itself the "First Christian Church" in 1893 seems to indicate that the congregation was not of the Disciples of Christ, which was already represented by the Garfield Park Tabernacle.  E. B. Ware, also, in his History of the Disciples of Christ in California, Healdsburg, California, 1916, does not mention this church, and the Santa Cruz Bible Church is not listed on the Disciples of Christ website, 2010.  According to the church office in 2008, it is not of the a cappella group of Christian Churches.

            What the church states about itself is that it is a "non-denominational, independent, evangelical, Elder-led and Staff run church."  "For over 100 years the church has withstood relocations, name changes, earthquakes and transitions to become one of the largest evangelical churches in Santa Cruz County." ( 2010; in 2005 it was also stated on this website that the church had an average weekend attendance of over 2,000 worshippers, but I do not find this on the 2010 website)

"Graceland" ministry of this church for college age members was established in 1996 at the Frederick Avenue site and in 2003 was phased out, its place being taken in 2004 by the <Vintage Faith Church, ( 2010) which is at 350 Mission St., tel. 423-8770. (2010 Yellow Pages)


Green Valley Chapel. Watsonville, 1914.

The Pajaronian's list of church services for Jan. 3, 1914 states, "Rev. Harz of Corralitos will preach in the Green Valley chapel Sunday afternoon at 3 o'clock."  The paper assumed that people knew about the chapel, and since both Corralitos and Watsonville had Christian Churches, it seems clear that the chapel was a mission of the one or the other congregation.  This would indicate its affiliation with the Christian Church/Disciples of Christ.  I do not find it in the January Pajaronian church listings before or after 1914.


Santa Cruz Church of Christ. 1923-2010.

            In the Santa Cruz County Directory, 1923-24 and Polk 1930-46 there is a Church of Christ at 52 Center. The address of the latter was changed after 1946 to 517 Center, and the congregation remained there through 1964. (Polk 1950-1964)  In Polk 1970 and subsequent years there is a Church of Christ on Pacheco Ave., which is where the present Santa Cruz Church of Christ is located.  Its address, in fact, is 637 Pacheco Ave., Santa Cruz 95065, tel. 423-6046. (2010 Yellow Pages)  It is acknowledged to be a member of the Church of Christ group by the latter's website, 2010, and I was assured by the pastor in 2008 that it is of the a cappella group of Christian Churches.

            The Santa Cruz Church of Christ is the only church of its group that is recognized by the Church of Christ organization in Santa Cruz County, although it is true that the website 2010, lists a “Scotts Valley Church of Christ” with no mailing address and an out-of-county telephone number.

            From Polk 1925 to 1937 there was a Church of Christ at 111 Grant Ave.  I do not know how the Grant Ave. church related to the Santa Cruz Church of Christ, but I hesitate to consider it a separate congregation.


Church of Christ. Watsonville, 1938-2010.

            This congregation is not listed in the Church of Christ website, 2010. It is, nevertheless, categorized under "Churches-Church of Christ" along with the Pacheco Ave. congregation in the church directory of the July, 1984 SC Sentinel and in the 2010 Yellow Pages, where its address is 198 Holm Road, Watsonville 95076, tel. 722-0204.

Presumably this is the Church of Christ which was at 17a 3rd St. in Polk 1938-40; at 1221 Lincoln St. in Polk 1946; at 801 Main St. in Polk 1950 through 1988.  Note that Main Street became Freedom Blvd. in 1971.  Polk 1988 listed the church at both the Freedom Blvd. and Holm Road locations.


Live Oak Church of Christ of Santa Cruz, Calif. 1965-1980.

            Incorporated in 1965, (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 2871) this church was located, according both to its articles of incorporation and to Polk 1974-1980, at 1900 17th Ave., which is the address of the Live Oak Grange.


Community Christian Church. Aptos, 1965-1984.

            This congregation's original address was 2545 Mar Vista, (1965-1966 Yellow Pages) but it was listed at 8065 Valencia in the 1971 through 1983 Yellow Pages, and in the SC Sentinel, July 26, 1984.

            Other than the directory listings, I have no information concerning the relation between this church and the Christian Church groups.


New Life Center. Service org., Santa Cruz, 1972-2010.

            The New Life Center was incorporated in 1972 “to operate a church for religious purposes.” (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 3723)  It appeared in Polk for the first time in 1975, and its address at that time was 717 Fair Ave.  The 1983 Yellow Pages and the SC Sentinel, July 26, 1984, listed it under "Christian Churches." According to the SC Sentinel, Feb. 20, 2005, "<New Life Community Services [is] an addiction treatment center and homeless shelter on Fair Avenue."  Its entry in the 2006 Yellow Pages under churches still mentioned worship, but the 2007 Yellow Pages, did not list it under churches at all.  The 2010 White Pages list New Life Community Services at 707 Fair Ave., Santa Cruz 95060, tel. 427-1007,

            Other than the directory listings, I have no information concerning the relation between this church and the Christian Church groups.


Mid County Church of Christ. Live Oak, 1976-1980.

The Mid county Church of Christ was incorporated in 1976. (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 4342)

In 1979 and 1980 the Yellow Pages listed under Church of Christ a <Mid County Church at 1315 Bulb Ave.  From 1975 to 1981 Polk had a <Mission Chapel at 1315/1331 Bulb Ave., and I hesitate to think it was an unrelated congregation.


Seabright Church. Santa Cruz, 1979-1988.

At 1307 Seabright Ave., in the 1979 through 1981 Yellow Pages this is called the <Seabright Chapel, but in the 1983 through 1988 Yellow  Pages it is called the Seabright Church.

            Other than the directory listings, I have no information concerning the relation between this church and the Christian Church groups.


Mission Christian Fellowship (1). Live Oak, 1980-1985.

            The 1980 through 1983 Yellow Pages and the SC Sentinel, July 26, 1984 list this congregation at 2470 Soquel Ave.  The 1985 Yellow Pages list it, but without street address.

            Other than the directory listings, I have no information concerning the relation between this church and the Christian Church groups.


Mission Christian Fellowship (2). Live Oak, 1983-1984.

The 1983 Yellow Pages and the SC Sentinel, July 26, 1984 place this congregation at 890 38th Ave.  At this address in 2005 I observed the "Opal Cliffs Mobile Home Park."

            Other than the directory listings, I have no information concerning the relation between this church and the Christian Church groups.


#10   Independent Fundamentalist (Independent Fundamentalist family)


            As stated in Chapter 5 Particulars, the term Fundamentalism applies to sectors of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam which adhere staunchly to traditional teachings and are opposed to Modernism, the view that science negates the veracity of the Bible and that human progress is a good in itself.  Christian Fundamentalism is shared by many conservative church members, but few congregations belong in Melton's Independent Fundamentalist Family, the prerequisite for which is to trace origin or inspiration to John Nelson Darby.  Information about this movement and a list of member congregations can be found in 2010, the website of IFCA International, which formerly was called the Independent Fundamental Churches of America.  No churches and no pastors currently active in Santa Cruz are listed as IFCA International members on the website.

            I find a small number of Christian congregations which are clearly fundamentalist, but which disavow denominationalism, and I am placing these in this section, as follows:



                        #10.1  Calvary Chapel

                        #10.2  Various Independent Fundamentalist


#10.1 Calvary Chapel


            Founded in Costa Mesa, California in 1965, Calvary Chapel combined popular fundamentalism with a hippie community outreach which was called the "Jesus Movement."  Additional Calvary Chapel congregations were founded, and there are now over 500 of them, including the two in Santa Cruz County. ( 2010)  The movement is also treated in Partridge, New Religions, pp. 85-86 "The Jesus Movement,"


Calvary Chapel Aptos. 1998-2010.

This congregation was established no later than 1998, when, it was called Calvary Chapel of Santa Cruz. (1998 through 2000 Yellow Pages) and it is located at 8065 Valencia St., Aptos 95003, tel. 688-5613. (2010 Yellow Pages)


Calvary Chapel Santa Cruz. 1981-2010.

 This congregation met in 1981 in the Beulah Park Auditorium, but from 1982 to 1988 it met at 427 Capitola Road Extension, Santa Cruz (VHM Christian School premises). (1981-1988 Yellow Pages).

After that it met in Veterans Hall, Santa Cruz, then again for almost 8 years at the Capitola Road Extension location, but in 2009 it moved to 1500 Green Hills Road, Scotts Valley. (SC Sentinel Nov. 14, 2009).  The telephone number is 477-7777. ( 2010)


Calvary Chapel Watsonville. 2008-2010.

            The Watsonville Calvary Chapel first appeared in 2008 on its website, In 2010 it remains on this website and on  The congregation meets at 113 Green Valley Road; its telephone number is 831-761-8151.


#10.2 Various Independent Fundamentalist


Child Evangelism Fellowship. Service org, Watsonville, 1981-2010.

            Founded in 1937 as an aid in evangelizing youth, the parent group is headquartered in Warrenton, Missouri. ( 2010)  From 1981 to 1986 it was listed in the local White Pages with the address 3160 Hardin Way, Soquel, and from 1981 to 1985 it was also listed at 115 Madison in Watsonville.  In 2010 it was not listed in the telephone directory, but the Child Evangelism Fellowship of Santa Cruz County was at 107 Onyx Drive, Watsonville CA 95076 according to the website mentioned above.


Church of the King. Scotts Valley, 1995-2010.

Currently meeting in the Bethany University Chapel in Scotts Valley, but having its own telephone number, tel. 476-4877, this congregation characterizes itself simply as evangelical, without reference to Pentecostalism, but with indications, it seems to me, of fundamentalisms. ( 2010)


God's Church. Santa Cruz, 2000-2010.

First appearing in 2000, this congregation had an address, but no longer has one, and has “gone underground!” with the telephone number 423-6926.  It identifies itself with  <Leap of Faith Ministries, which is fundamentalist, and staunchly unaffiliated: "God's Church is an independent, non-denominational, bible believing, Christ centered fellowship.  We are not affiliated with any foundation, society or movement.  We do not formally subscribe to any catechism, confession or creed." ( 2010)


The Gathering by the Bay. Soquel, 2006-2010.

            Appearing to be fundamentalist in beliefs, this group has “gatherings” in houses in several locations in and around Santa Cruz.  Its central address is P.O. Box 224, Soquel 95073. ( 2010)


Trinity Covenant Church. Santa Cruz, 2007-2010.

            This church is an affiliate of the Congregation of Reformed Evangelical Churches, being a mission of the Congregation’s church in Moscow, Idaho.  The CREC was formed in 1998, and in 2010 has affiliates scattered throughout the United States.  Calvinistic in theology, it emphatically characterizes itself as neither modernist nor fundamentalist; yet, it has a strong stand on the Five Christian Fundamentals themselves. In 2010 it conducts worship at the VHM Christian School. ( 2010)


Iglesia Misionera De Cristo Beerseba. Watsonville, 2007-2010.

            This congregation appeared in the 2007 and 2008 Yellow Pages under the heading “Churches – Independent fundamentalist.”  The 2010 White Pages lists it at 163 W. Lake Ave., Watsonville 95076, tel. 768-7107.



#11  Adventist (Adventist family)



                        #11.1  Advent Christian Church

                        #11.2  Church of God (Adventist)

                        #11.3  Seventh-Day Adventist

                        #11.4  Jehovah's Witnesses


            The Adventist movement in the United States originated in the preaching of William Miller, who maintained that the time of the second coming of Christ could be determined precisely from the Bible, and was, indeed, going to take place between March, 1843 and March, 1844.  50,000 disappointed followers in the East and Midwest were next led to think that October, 1844 would be the apocalyptic time, and when it did not turn out to be so, Miller and others revised their prediction to be vague, advising people simply that the Second Coming was imminent.  In the course of time several Adventist groups came into being, four of which were, and three still are, in Santa Cruz.


#11.1 Advent Christian Church


            After 1844 Adventist groups rallied around distinct points of doctrine that distinguished them, one from the other.  "Conditional immortality," the notion that the human soul as such is not immortal, but that faith in Christ raises it to an immortal condition, was one of these points, and in 1855 the Advent Christian Church was formed with this as a tenet.


Pleasure Point Community Church. Live Oak, 1859-2010.

            The <Advent Church in Santa Cruz was organized in a tent in 1859.  In 1860 the congregation split into two, and in the following year most of the founding group built a church structure of their own on Walnut Avenue, Santa Cruz, "beyond Centre St.," while the dissidents continued to worship in the tent.  (Pacific Sentinel, Aug. 6, Aug. 13, and Sep. 24, 1861)

The dissidents, however, built their own church on Elm Street and called it the <Church of Blessed Hope, which they dedicated on July 20, 1884. (SC Surf, July 21, 1884)  In 1885 the "two branches of the Santa Cruz Adventist have united, and now worship in the building of the Church of Blessed Hope." (SC Sentinel, Sep. 8, 1885)

According to the SC Surf's church notices of March 4, 1893, A. P. Moore was pastor of the Church of Blessed Hope on Elm St., and, in a separate entry,  Rev. L. A. Wilkerson "will preach morning and evening" at "Blessed Hope Church,"  No reason is given for Blessed Hope's being mentioned twice.  In 1910 Rev. L. A. (Lee) Wilkerson will also appear as the pastor of the Pentecostal Tabernacle. (See #7.1, Various Pentecostal, no longer in existence.)  In the 1920 U.S. Census he and his wife and family were still living in Santa Cruz City, and his occupation was "Minister" in the <Advent Christian Church.

The Elm Street structure, which still stands in 2010, was built in 1912. (SC Sentinel, undated clipping from the mid 1960s)  It is the same as the <Advent Christian Church at 17 Elm in Polk 1925 and the <First Advent Church at 17 Elm in Polk 1930 and 1946 and 117 Elm in Polk 1950 and 1960.  Its name was formally changed to First Advent Christian Church of Santa Cruz in 1941. (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 119)

The move of the Adventist congregation to 26th Avenue was to the Advent Christian Conference-Camp Santa Cruz property that it already owned. (SC Sentinel, May 28, 1965)  See next entry.

According to information given by the current pastor of the congregation, the <Advent Christian Church was established in Santa Cruz in 1879, built its structure, which was hexagonal, on Elm Street in 1884, moved to 26th Avenue in 1967, and is celebrating 125 years of existence in 2004. ("Pleasure Point congregation looks forward to its next 125 years," SC Sentinel, Sep. 21, 2004)

The address of the congregation is 761 26th Ave., Santa Cruz 95062, tel. 475-4117. (2010 Yellow Pages, where it is listed as Advent Christian Church)

Some information on the current Advent Christian General Conference can be found on the website 2010.


Advent Christian Conference-Camp Santa Cruz. Conf center, Live Oak, 1965-2010.

In existence at least since 1965, (see entry above on the Pleasure Point Community Church) this facility is at 631 26th Ave., Santa Cruz 95062, tel. 464-8729. (2010 Yellow Pages under Churches)


#11.2 Church of God (Adventist)


Monterey Bay Christian Church. Watsonville, 1986-2010.

            From 1986 (Polk 1986) to 2004 (2004 White Pages) there was a <Church of God at 48 Atkinson Lane, Watsonville.  Called the <Monterey Bay Church of God in, 2004, it was affiliated with the Worldwide Church of God, an Adventist group which was founded by Herbert Armstrong in the 1930s. ( 2004)

            Since 2006, including 2010, the Worldwide Church of God website listed the location for the Monterey Bay Christian Church as the Watsonville Women's Club, 12 Brennan St., Watsonville 95076, tel. 445-1000.

            For a previous use of the Atkinson Lane structure see South Spanish Congregation of Jehovah's Witnesses in #11.3, and for a subsequent use see Crossroads Church of God in #7.7.

            In 2010 announced that the name Worldwide Church of God has been changed to <Grace Communion International.


Acts of Love Foundation. Santa Cruz, 2001-2010.

            Formerly called the <Potter’s Hand Ministry Center, ( 2007) this group, a practical ministry toward the poor, has been meeting in Santa Cruz since 2001. Currently at least, it meets at the Santa Cruz belltower on Sunday morning, and its telephone number is 831-588-3822.  Its website,, indicated in 2008 that it stemmed from the Church of God International of San Antonio, Texas, but I do not see this information in the same website in 2010.  This Church of God group separated from the Worldwide Church of God. (Encyclopedia, *615)


#11.3  Seventh-Day Adventist


            Shortly after the non-event of 1844 some of Miller's followers "... continued to study the Scriptures, searching for explanations.  They concluded that a significant event had indeed occurred in October of 1844.  They believed the event corresponded with a change in Christ's ministry in heaven, from the Holy to the Most Holy Place....  The group focused on the commandments of God and the faith of Jesus, seeking to show the interrelationship of the Law and the gospel.  It was thus that the sabbath of the fourth commandment came to hold great meaning ...." (Mead, Handbook, pp. 37-38)  And so Seventh-Day Adventism came into being, although it did not take that name until 1860.  The Seventh-Day Adventist Church, with headquarters in Washington, D. C., is by far the largest of the Adventist groups.

            An introduction to the history of the Seventh-Day Adventist Church in Santa Cruz can be gleaned from two doctoral dissertations, as follows:

            The first Seventh-Day Adventist meetings in the state were held in San Francisco in the early 1860s, and in 1869 the first Seventh-Day Adventist Company in the state was established in Petaluma.  From the Santa Rosa-Napa Valley area Seventh-Day Adventism spread south. (John Cecil Haussler, The history of the Seventh-Day Adventist Church in California. PhD dissertation, University of Southern California, 1945, pp. 40-69)

            In 1875 two Seventh-Day preachers who had been holding meetings in a tent in Stockton moved their tent to Gilroy.  In a report one of them noted, "There are several villages near enough together to strengthen one another should churches be raised up in each place.  Gilroy has a population of about two thousand, exclusive of Chinese and Spanish.  Hollister is only fourteen miles south, with a population of about a thousand, I am told.  Watsonville is only twenty miles Southwest, with a population of about fifteen hundred....  San Juan is a small town about as far off as Hollister.  Santa Cruz, with a population of thirty-five hundred, is only about twenty miles northwest of Watsonville; while Salinas, with about twenty-five hundred, is about the same distance south of Watsonville....  We have scattered brethren in all these places...."  The report goes on to say that the meetings in Gilroy were well attended.  The narrative, which ends in 1878, says nothing more about the establishment of churches in these towns. (Harold O. McCumber, Beginnings of the Seventh-Day Adventist Church in California.  PhD dissertation, University of California Berkeley, 1934)


Seventh-Day Adventist Church. Soquel, 1891-2010.

            According to the Jan. 4, 1949 SC Sentinel article upon the occasion of the dedication of its new, and current, structure, the Seventh-Day Adventist congregation in Soquel was the first in California south of San Francisco.

            The church is located at 2501 Porter St., Soquel 95073, tel. 475-2215. (2010 Yellow Pages)


Santa Cruz Seventh-Day Adventist Church. 1894-2010.

            Founded in 1894, this congregation met in a hall on Lincoln St. until 1906, when it purchased the Baptist Church on Pennsylvania Avenue at the corner of Soquel Avenue. (SC Sentinel, June 28, 1954)  The address was 18 Pennsylvania Ave. in Polk 1925 and 1946 and 429 Pennsylvania Ave. in Polk 1950.

            At some point, as I and others have seen, the structure was greatly enlarged, a new entrance was added, the facade was made to be southwestern in style, and the facade and sides were stuccoed.  This work, or at least some of it, must have been done in 1952 or 1953, because a Seventh-Day Adventist publication, These Times, dated December 15, 1952, was found in 2006 under the floor of the entrance.

The congregation dedicated its present church in 1954. (SC Sentinel, June 28, 1954)  The address is 1024 Cayuga St., Santa Cruz, tel. 429-1442. (2010 Yellow Pages)


VHM Christian School, Santa Cruz, 1920-2010.

            Kindergarten through eighth grade. (1)  The original school, dating from 1920, was on Seventh Avenue, one half block from the beach, but the building itself, with some structural changes, was moved to Rodriquez Street in 1923, and the new school on Capitola Road Extension was built in 1961. (2)  The Rodriguez Street site was at Sixth Avenue, (3) the present address of which is 532 Rodriquez St., where there is now the Seventh Day Adventist Discoveryland Christian Preschool. (4)  The present location of VHM is 427 Capitola Road Extension, Santa Cruz 95062, tel. 475-4762. (5)  The initials "VHM" stand for "Virgil Hauselt Memorial." (6)

            The school’s entry in the 2010 Yellow Pages is under “Seventh Day Adventist School,” without the “VHM.”



1. 2010

2.         information obtained from the principal of the school by local historian Norman Poitevin in 2005.

3.         Twin Lakes Moon, May 31, 1924.

4.         2006 Yellow Pages; the 2010 Yellow Pages have simply "Discoveryland Christian Preschool."

5.         2010 Yellow Pages.

6.         SC Sentinel, March 11, 2007.


Seventh-Day Adventist Church. Watsonville, 1925-2010.

            In 1925 the Watsonville Seventh Day Adventist Church was at 17a E 3rd, where it remained through 1929. (Polk 1925-29)  From 1930 through 1939 there was no Watsonville Seventh Day Adventist Church listed in Polk, but in Polk 1940 and 1941 there was a Seventh Day Adventist Church at Davis Ave. near Santa Cruz Highway in Freedom, which is now part of Watsonville.  The congregation erected a new church building at 1106 Lincoln in 1947, (Pajaronian, Sep. 3, 2002) and it was still there in 1977. (1977 Yellow Pages)  In 1979 the building was converted to a private residence, (2007 communication from the Pajaro Valley Hisorical Association) and in 1980 the congregation was at its current address, (1980 Yellow Pages) which is 700 South Green Valley Road, Watsonville 95076, tel. 722-6892. (2010 Yellow Pages)


Seventh-Day Adventist Conference Grounds.  Conf center, Soquel, 1947-2010.

The Seventh-Day Adventist Central Conference purchased this land on Old San Jose Road in Soquel in 1947 and has used it for annual encampments ever since. (Koch, Parade of the Past, p. 161)  It is at 1931 Old San Jose Road, Soquel 95073, tel. 462-8889. (2010 White Pages)


Monterey Bay Academy. School, Santa Cruz County, 1949-2010.

            According to its website, since 1949 Monterey Bay Academy has been a coeducational boarding high school located on the Monterey Bay, owned and operated by the Central California Conference of Seventh-Day Adventists. ( 2010)  The California Conference of Seventh-Day Adventists acquired the property as war surplus; during World War II it was the location of Camp McQuaide, an army base where training was conducted and prisoners of war were held. (Betty Lewis, Watsonville: Memories that Linger, Vol. II, p. 28)  Its location is 783 San Andreas Road, Watsonville 95076, tel. 728-1481. (2010 Yellow Pages)


Watsonville Spanish Seventh-Day Adventist Church. 1991-2010.

This congregation has been at 336 Green Valley Road, Watsonville 95076, tel. 728-3617 from its establishment. (1991-2010 Yellow Pages)


#11.4 Jehovah's Witnesses


            Founded in 1884 with a special reference to the second coming of Christ, this group, originally called Russellites, came to take the stance that the era of Christ began in 1914, and the witnesses, the righteous, must be active in preparing the world for the universal battle between good and evil.  They are especially known for the widespread distribution of The Watchtower and of Gideon Bibles.  Their places of worship are known as Kingdom Halls, but any given one is apt to be listed under Kingdom Hall, Jehovah's Witnesses, or the place name.


International Bible Students' Association. School, Santa Cruz, 1912-1936.

            This group met at 198 Hubbard St., Santa Cruz in Thurston 1912-1913, at 72 ½ Fairbanks Ave., Santa Cruz in Polk 1925 through 1932, and at 72 Fairbanks Ave. in Polk 1933 through 1935.  In Polk 1936 it was at 72 Ocean View Ave.

            In the SC Surf for May 29, 1915 Church Directory the <Associated Bible Students are listed as meeting in Pythian Hall.  This is probably the same group as the International Bible Students' Association.

The IBSA is a Jehovah's Witness activity. (Mead, Handbook, p. 155)  The name, "Jehovah's Witnesses," in fact, did not supplant the group's first official name, "Millennial Dawn Bible Students," until the founder, Charles Taze Russell, had died (1916) and the better known "Judge" Joseph Rutherford became its leader. (John K. Simmons and Brian Wilson, Competing Visions of Paradise, p. 60)


Kingdom Hall of Jehovah's Witnesses. Frederick Street. Santa Cruz, 1939-2005.

            Evidently the Kingdom Hall at this location was the linear successor to <Santa Cruz Company of Jehovah's Witnesses, 269 ½ Soquel Ave., Santa Cruz, (Polk 1939-1940) and <Jehovah's Witnesses (Kingdom Hall) at 96 Garfield St. (Polk 1946) and 303 Garfield St. (Polk 1948 through 1958).  From 1959 to 2004 it was at 170 Frederick St., Santa Cruz 95062, tel. in 2004: 425-4935. (Polk 1959 and 2004 White Pages)  Note that 96 Garfield St. of 1946 is the same as 303 Garfield St. of 1948.  As listed in the 2004 White Pages, the Frederick Street location housed three distinct congregations.  I observed in 2005 that the sign in front of the church still identified it as a Kingdom Hall, but in 2006 I saw that this was no longer the case.


Watsonville Company of Jehovah's Witnesses. 1940-2010.

            At 27 Eaton Ave., Watsonville, (Polk 1940-1941) then, in 1946, at 13 ½ San Juan Road, Pajaro, (Polk 1946) the Jehovah's Witnesses of Watsonville appear next at 1221 Lincoln, Watsonville, (Polk 1948 through 1956-57) then at 480 Green Valley Extension, Watsonville, (1975 Yellow Pages and SC Sentinel, July 26, 1984) and at 480 Green Valley Road, Watsonville. (Polk 1986 through 1989)

Presumably, too, the Kingdom Hall of Jehovah's Witnesses at 48 Atkinson Lane, Watsonville of Polk 1960 through 1964 was an intermediate stage of the same congregation.  Now the Jehovah's Witnesses of Watsonville are at 480 S. Green Valley Road, tel. 722-1294. (2010 Yellow Pages)


Jehovah's Witnesses Kingdom Hall of Felton. 1963-2010.

The <Santa Cruz Congregation of Jehovah’s Witnesses, San Lorenzo Unit was incorporated in 1963. (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 2631)  Construction of the building in Felton began in 1972. (Valley Press, Jan. 19, 1972)  Presently it is at 5761 Valley Dr., Felton 95018, tel. 335-5578. (2010 Yellow Pages)


Jehovah's Witnesses-Soquel-Aptos-Capitola. Soquel, 1964-2010.

Incorporated in 1964 as the <Santa Cruz, California Congregation of Jehovah’s Witnesses – Soquel Unit, (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 2849), this congregation was renamed <Soquel Congregation of Jehovah’s Witnesses in 1967. (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 3023)  Having been at 3125 Park Ave., Soquel 95073 at least since 1984, (SC Sentinel, July 26, 1984) it is still there, with tel. 476-4460. (2010 Yellow Pages)  In the 2010 White and Yellow Pages “Capitola” is not in the name of the congregation.


Scotts Valley Congregation of Jehovah’s Witnesses. 1970.

            Although this congregation was incorporated in 1970, (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 3403) I have no evidence that it existed physically.  Not to be counted in totals.


Kingdom Hall of Jehovah's Witnesses-Santa Cruz. 1970-2010.

This Kingdom Hall has been since 1970 at its present location, 607 Fair Ave., Santa Cruz 95060, (Polk 1970ff.) and its telephone number is 423-3214. (2010 White Pages)

            As listed in the 2010 White Pages, the Fair Street location houses three distinct congregations.


South Spanish Congregation of Jehovah's Witnesses. Watsonville, 1975-2010.

  From 1975 through 1984 48 Atkinson Lane was the address of the Spanish speaking ministry of Jehovah's Witnesses. (1975 Yellow Pages and SC Sentinel, July 26, 1984).  Now, however, it is at 100 Sill Road, Watsonville 95076, tel. 728-0133. (2010 Yellow Pages)


Kingdom Hall of Jehovah's Witnesses Seabright. Live Oak, 2006-2010.

This Kingdom Hall made its appearance in 2006 at 960 Brommer St., Santa Cruz 95062.  Its address is the same in 2008, and its telephone number is 477-2090. (2010 Yellow Pages, which call it <Seabright Harbor Bahia)


#12.  Liberal (Liberal Family)



                        #12.1  Unitarian Universalist

                        #12.2  Transcendentalist

                        #12.3  Various Liberal


            The notion of "liberal," as used here by Melton, refers to the eighteenth century Enlightenment, which applied the scrutiny of reason to the Christian religion and came up with Deism and other non-dogmatic ways of viewing the relation between man and God.  In the United States the best known of the liberal groups is Unitarianism, but there are other churches which share the fundamental characteristic of liberalism and I place them, too, in this section.


#12.1 Unitarian Universalist


            The American Unitarian Church grew mainly as a doctrinally liberal wing of Congregationalism, becoming an independent group in the early 19th century in the East.  Totally Christian in spirit, it nevertheless insisted that no one should be bound to adhere to a definitive set of Christian doctrines.  The Universalist Church in America, which stressed the equality of peoples and the availability of salvation for all people, was founded in 1793, and the two at length united in 1961 as the Unitarian Universalist Church. ( 2010)


Unitarian Universalist Fellowship of Santa Cruz County, California. Aptos, 1866-2010.

            "Gathered," i.e., organized, in 1866 by Charles Gordon Ames, the Santa Cruz Unitarian congregation was the second Unitarian congregation in California.  Ames also organized a congregation in Sacramento and one in San Jose, and he conducted Unitarian meetings in Watsonville and Santa Clara.  After he left Santa Cruz for Germantown, Pennsylvania in 1871 the Unitarian  church "fell dormant for a generation." (Arnold Crompton, Unitarianism on the Pacific Coast.  The First Sixty Years.  Boston: Beacon Press, 1957, pp. 57-63)

            The Santa Cruz congregation built <Unity Hall on Walnut Avenue in 1868. (Koch, Parade of the Past, p. 32)  Known also as <Unity Church, this building in some years had a pastor and services and in some years had neither. (Elliott, Santa Cruz County, p. 70)  In 1886 it was "not occupied by any religious denomination but is rented for the use of any society that may apply. (SC Surf, Jan 2, 1886)  Regardless of this, in 1888 the Santa Cruz Unitarian Church was one of 14 in the American Unitarian Association for the Pacific Coast. (Crompton,  Unitarianism, p. 126.  I do not know how to account for the apparent discrepancies between Crompton's statements and the facts reported locally.)

            The original Unity Hall was built by a Grover family.  Presbyterians bought it in 1891 and moved it to the corner of Pacific Ave. and Cathcart St., where it remained until "the late 1930s."  In 1938 the Presbyterians built a new church on Mission St. and moved the former Unity Hall, minus steeple, to "Water Street near the then juncture of Harrison and Morrissey Avenue" to become the original structure of the Trinity Presbyterian Church. (Harold J. van Gorder, Now and Then, Santa Cruz, 1995)  See Trinity Presbyterian Church in #4.1 for the later history of the building.

            In 1902 the Unitarian congregation inaugurated the church structure at 517 Center St. (Santa Cruz County Historical Trust Landmark plaque)  Then, some time before 1950 it moved to 513 Center St., Hackley Hall, which was next door to the church itself.  It retained a presence in Hackley Hall through 1971. (Polk 1950-71)  Hackley Hall was then moved physically from one door south of the church to one door north of it. (from a conversation I had with the caretaker of the Progressive Missionary Baptist Church in December, 2005)

            The Unitarian church at either location on Center St. was known also as <All Souls Unitarian Church. (SC Surf, Jan. 2, 1909 through Polk 1971)  For subsequent use of the 517 Center St. structure see Santa Cruz Church of Christ under #9.7 and Progressive Missionary Baptist Church under #9.6.

            The present congregation was incorporated in 1963; (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 2661) its website, 2008, however, informsed us that "In 1957 the present fellowship was organized, and in 1961 we added 'Universalist.'  Our main building was constructed in 1966 and the Bryans Building in 1993."  The present address is 6401 Freedom Blvd., Aptos 95003, tel. 684-0506. (2010 Yellow Pages)


Universalist Church. Santa Cruz, 1892-1896.

            This congregation held services in the Odd Fellows Hall, Santa Cruz in 1892, (San Jose City Directory, 1892) and in 1893. (SC Surf, March 4, 1893)  It seems clear that it is the same as the <Universalist Parrish [sic] that was incorporated in 1896. (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 242)


#12.2 Transcendentalism. Community, 1850-1887, Santa Cruz.


            American Transcendentalism, an intellectual, non-dogmatic experience of oneness with all reality, was represented in Santa Cruz mainly by the presence of Georgiana Bruce Kirby.             Born in Bristol, England in 1818, Miss Bruce lived in Boston from 1838 to 1841.  Then she moved to Brook Farm, a community of Transcendentalists, nine miles west of Boston, staying there until 1844.(1)

            Transcendentalism, indigenous to New England, was an American attempt to overcome the problem posed by Immanuel Kant's destruction of the human mind's confidence in its ability to know reality   Following the lead of some post-Kantian German philosophers, the Americans held that by intuition we can attain knowledge of the ultimate realities.

            Although New England Transcendentalism was considered a philosophical movement, it was more religious than philosophical in spirit.  Many of the New England Transcendentalists in fact were clergymen, although their aversion to religious dogma induced some of them to leave the ministry.  The best known of these latter was Ralph Waldo Emerson.  Some who were the farthest from any dogma, philosophical or religious, were known for their spirit of oneness with nature: chief among these was Henry David Thoreau.  The foremost poet of the movement was Walt Whitman.  Besides these household names in American history, there were other intellectual lights such as the clergymen Theodore Parker and William H. Channing, and the writer and editor of The Dial, Margaret Fuller.

            Bruce’s stay at Brook Farm occurred during its original Transcendental phase.  In 1844 it became an experiment in Fourierism, a social theory for better living rather than a community of idealists. (2)

            When Bruce arrived in Santa Cruz, in 1850, she appeared merely to be an out-of-place feminist intellectual like her friend there, Eliza Farnham.  Her inner thoughts, however, which she confided to her Journal, were of the goodness of God and of love being at the heart of religion rather than theology. (3)  By 1855, as Mrs. Georgiana Bruce Kirby, she was working for the presence of a Unitarian, liberal, minister in Santa Cruz, although Unity Church was not founded until 1866.  Long before 1866 she was distributing the sermons of Theodore Parker. (4)  In 1870 and 1871 she was publishing in national magazines an account of her experiences in Brook Farm because she feared that no others would write about their stay there.  In one of these articles she stated her feelings before she went to Brook Farm in a way that seems to apply to her whole life: “What I most needed, for the present, was a philosophic statement of the amicable relations between the infinite and the finite, -- a justification of my heterodox belief in universal beneficence.” (5)  At some time before 1877 she met with Horace Greeley and Mark Twain, she invited Emerson to her house, and she acquired the first West Coast copy of Whitman’s Leaves of Grass. (6)

            In later years Georgiana Bruce Kirby was better known for her participation in the temperance and woman’s suffrage movements.  Less known, but a matter of public record, was her connection with Spiritualism. (7)  In addition to these facets of her life, Transcendentalism, whether visible or not, was kept alive in Santa Cruz as long as GBK lived.  Whether he knew it or not, the poet Walt Whitman sang of her as a Modern Man in his Leaves of Grass:


One’s-self I sing–a simple, separate Person;

Yet utter the word Democratic, the word for En-masse.


Of Physiology from top to toe I sing;

Not physiognomy alone, nor brain alone, is worthy for the muse—I say the Form

Complete is worthier far;

The Female equally with the male I sing.


Of Life immense in passion, pulse, and power,

Cheerful-for freest action form’d, under the laws divine,

The Modern Man I sing. (Walt Whitman, Leaves of Grass)



            1.         The single most complete and authoritative source on Georgiana Bruce Kirby is Carolyn Swift and Judith Steen, Eds,  Georgiana, Feminist Reformer of the West, The Journal of Georgiana Bruce Kirby  1852-60,  Santa Cruz, California: Santa Cruz County Historical Trust, 1987.  A recent supplement is JoAnn Levy, Unsettling the West: Eliza Farnham and Georgiana Bruce Kirby in Frontier California, Berkeley, CA: Heyday Books, 2004.

            2.         The following three books taken together present concisely and accurately the rise and decline of Transcendentalism as well as of Brook Farm:

            Octavius Brooks Frothingham, Transcendentalism in New England  A History, New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1876 and subsequent editions.

            Perry Miller, Ed, The American Transcendentalists  Their Prose and Poetry, Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, 1957.

            Henry W. Sams, Ed, Autobiography of Brook Farm, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1958.

            A rich website for the study of Transcendentalism is

3.         Swift and Steen, op. cit., pp. 65-66, Journal entry for December 15, 1852.

4.         Swift and Steen, op. cit., pp. 85-86, Journal entry for July 18, 1858.

5.         Old and New, (Boston) February 1871, p. 178.

6.         Swift and Steen, op. cit., p. 48-50.  The reference to Leaves of Grass is from Mary Hallock Foote, A Victorian Gentlewoman in the Far West, p. 143.

7.         See “Classical American Spiritualism” in Chapter 5 Particulars for more about this.   


#12.3 Various Liberal


            Seabright Improvement Society. Service org, Santa Cruz., 1904-1915.

            Incorporated in 1904, the society, which was housed in Seabright Hall at the lower end of Seabright Avenue, was the hub of community action and intellectual life in the Seabright area at least until 1915.  Although without organizational ties to any church, the society included in its constitution a provision by which it "has always been free to religious services on Sunday, and so for many years a Sunday-school has been held....  Every first and third Sunday in the month an Episcopal service is conducted by Rev. C. O. Tillotson." (Reminiscences of Seabright by E.M.C. Forbes, Seabright California, 1915.  The quote is from p. 31)


Sequoia Seminar. Conf center, Ben Lomond, 1950-2010.

            Sequoia Seminar existed as a conference center from 1950 to 2003.  It developed from the "Jesus as Teacher" seminars - essentially Bible-study groups - which were given in various non-California locations from 1915 to 1945 by Henry Sharman.  In the latter year Harry and Emilia Rathbun of Palo Alto assumed the leadership of Sharman's seminar concept in California, calling their initiative the Sequoia Seminar.  In 1950 they arranged with the Quakers in Ben Lomond to use part of the Quakers' property, but before the decade was over they had bought part of it, had purchased additional land, and had constructed extensive conference facilities.  In 1962 the Rathbuns organized themselves and core followers as a religious association called "Creative Initiative," which lay outside of any denomination.  Twenty years later, in 1982, they stripped it of religious structure and, calling it "Beyond War," worked to promote peace and unity among peoples of the world. (Steven M. Gelber, "Sequoia Seminar: The Sources of Religious Sectarianism," California History, Vol. 69, Spring 1990, pp. 36-51)

            The facility as such retained all this time the name Sequoia Seminar, but at some point it began to be operated by United Camps, Conferences and Retreats according to the latter's website in 2003. (  In 2003, however, Sequoia Seminar, with its 230 acres of mountainside, was for sale. (SC Sentinel, May 18, 2003 advertisement and June 29, 2003 article, "Sounds of Silence")  Some time between 2003 and 2006 "the Foundation for Global Community," the successor organization to Creative Initiative, sold the facility. ( 2006)

            In 2006 the facility was "<Raindance Retreat and Conference Center," 11445 Alba Road, Ben Lomond 95060, tel. 336-5060. (2006 Yellow Pages and the United Camps, Conferences and Retreats website, 2006, neither of which gives indication of a spiritual orientation)  In April, 2010 the sign at the foot of its entrance read "<Sequoia Retreat Center," and the 2010 White Pages listed Sequoia Retreat Center at the Alba Road address and telephone number.


Unity Press.  Service org, Santa Cruz, 1976-?.

            Incorporated in 1976, (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 4181) this alternative book publisher of the 1970s, operated by Stephen Levine, published such titles as Ram Dass's Grist for the Mill, Jack Kornfield's Living Buddhist Masters, and Ormund and Harry Aebi's The Art and Adventure of Bee Keeping.  It is listed at least in the websites 2008 and 2007.


Universal Life Church. Santa Cruz, 1978-1984.

            Founded in Modesto in 1962, the Universal Life Church was characterized by mass ordinations and mail-order Doctorates of Divinity. (Melton, Encyclopedia *704)

The 1978 and 1979 Yellow Pages list a "Universal Life Church Monastery" with a telephone number but no address.  The 1980 and 1981 Yellow Pages list a <Judeo-Christian Church of Universal Life with no address.  The 1979 and 1983 Yellow Pages and the SC Sentinel, July 26, 1984 list the Universal Life Church at 1335 Seabright Ave.  It seems to me more probable than not that these three associations are basically the same.

See Christ Temple in #7.4 and Church of the Nazarene Santa Cruz in #6.4 for earlier congregations housed at the same address.


Temple Guaracy of Santa Cruz. 1997-2006.

            Temple Guaracy is the corporate name for Umbanda, a congregation of distinctively Brazilian spirituality, an extremely eclectic religion of Brazilian origin, combining elements of Brazilian and African folk religion with Christianity.  For general information on Umbanda see 2008.

Umbanda was brought to Santa Cruz County in 1997. ("Spiritual approach: Corralitos hosts nation's first Umbanda wedding." SC Sentinel, Nov. 9, 2002)  A telephone number, but no address, for Temple Guaracy was listed in the White Pages for 2006, but not for 2007 or 2008.


#13   Latter-day Saints (Latter-day Saints family)



                        #13.1  Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

                        #13.2  Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter

                                                Day Saints


            Joseph Smith in 1830 established the Latter-day Saints in Upstate New York.  He and his followers moved West, founding communities in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois, where he was murdered by a mob in 1844.  Within two years about 20,000 Mormons, led by Brigham Young, were on their way by land to found a community in the West, out beyond the borders of the United States.

            Latter-day Saint beliefs are Christian and biblical in inspiration, but their doctrine also rests on the Book of Mormon and other records of Joseph Smith's revelations concerning God's relation to proto-civilization in America.  Mormon practice is now very much like that of conservative, evangelical Protestantism. (1)

         The full history of the Latter-day Saints in the Santa Cruz area involves the 238 who sailed from New York on the ship Brooklyn to San Francisco in 1846 with the intention of joining their coreligionists who were marching westward by land.  The Brooklyn group, led by Samuel Brannan, quickly founded New Hope, a community near the confluence of the Stanislaus and San Joaquin Rivers.  Brannan trekked over the mountains and found Brigham Young in what is now Wyoming.  He tried to convince Young to keep on going to California, but Young and the body of the Mormons stopped at the Great Salt Lake.  When Brennan returned to San Francisco to relate what had happened there were mixed feelings about the proper allegiance.  Eventually the passengers of the Brooklyn scattered; some joined the body in Utah, others remained in California, including Santa Cruz and Watsonville. (2)

         There was a settlement of Mormons in San Jose for a while, but they moved to San Bernardino, which was the only organized Mormon community in California, and it was abandoned in 1857, when the leadership in Salt Lake City recalled all the California members to Utah. (3)  From then on the members were prohibited from emigrating to the state until 1892, when the presidency reopened a mission in Northern California. (4) 



1.      These basics of Mormon belief are in Melton, Encyclopedia, pp. 93-96.  The terminology, "Utah Mormons" and "Missouri Mormons," which I use below, is from p. 96 of the same.

2.      The facts of this paragraph can be found in any one of these historical studies:

         Paul Bailey. Sam Brannan and the California Mormons. Los Angeles: Westernlore Press,  Third Publication 1959.

         Kenneth N. Owens. Gold Rush Saints; California Mormons and the Great Rush for Riches, Spokane, Washington: The Arthur H. Clark Company, 2004.

         Reva Scott. Samuel Brannan and the Golden Fleece. New York: Macmillan, 1944.

         The complete passenger list of the Brooklyn is in Scott, pp. 451-453, and on the website 2010.  Scott, pp. 453-455, lists places where some of the 238 were later found.

3.      Owens, op. cit., p. 254.

4.      Ibid., p. 349.


#13.1 Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints


Latter-day Saints Aptos Ward. Watsonville, 1946-2010.

There was an LDS church at 17a 3rd St. according to Polk 1946 through 1954.  Then, in 1954, the LDS church at 114 East 5th St. was dedicated, ("History of the <Watsonville Ward" from Chapel Dedication Program, August 29, 1954) and the congregation remained there until 1981, when it moved to the Holm Road site. (Polk 1955 through 1964 and the 1964 through 1981 Yellow Pages)

The present address is 255 Holm Road, Watsonville 95076, tel. 722-0208. (2010 Yellow Pages)


Latter-day Saints Ocean Branch Church. Santa Cruz, 1950-2010.

            The church of the same denomination at the corner of Melrose and Harrison (Polk 1950 through 1961) appears to be the precursor of this one, which went into service in 1962. (SC Sentinel, Aug. 17, 1962)  The Ocean Branch is listed as <Santa Cruz Ward in SC Sentinel, July 26, 1984.

Currently the location is 220 Elk St., Santa Cruz 95065, tel. 429-9315. (2010 Yellow Pages)


Latter-day Saints Church in Ben Lomond. 1958-2010.

            Sunday school was held in Ben Lomond from 1958, and worship began there in 1959 at Central Ave. and Love Creek Road.  By 1965 this was a ward. (McCarthy, Grizzlies, p. 93)

In 1984 it was listed as the <San Lorenzo Valley Ward, (SC Sentinel, July 26, 1984) and it continued to be listed in the Yellow Pages through 1998, although 1995 was the last year it was called a ward there until 2007 (White Pages).  The 2010 White Pages, list it as as the San Lorenzo Valley Ward and give its address as 9434 Central Ave., tel. 336-2707.


Lehi Park. Conf center, Bonny Doon, 1972-2010.

            The Latter-day Saints purchased this 1,200 acre property in 1972 and use about 100 acres of it as a conference facility. (Memories of the Mountain, p. 117)  According to McCarthy, Grizzlies, p. 93, it is a summer recreation area for "several branches" of the Latter Day Saints.

            Lehi Park is at 16000 Empire Grade Road, Santa Cruz 95060, tel. 454-9034. (2010 White Pages)


Latter-day Saints Family History Center. Service org, Santa Cruz, c1980-2010.

             At 220 Elk St., Santa Cruz 95065, tel. 426-1078, (2010 White Pages) this genealogy center is a resource for all local genealogists.  According to one of the genealogists who has used it for many years it was established about 1980.


Latter-day Saints Family History Center in Ben Lomond. Service org, 2000-2010.

            This is located at 9434 Central Ave., Ben Lomond 95005, tel. 336-2707, (2010 White Pages) which is the same address as that of the LDS church in Ben Lomond. It has been called a Family History Center in the White or the Yellow Pages since 2000.


#13.2 Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints


In 1860 some of the Saints who had remained in the East and Midwest when Brigham Young led the main group to Utah, prevailed upon Joseph Smith III, son of the murdered founder, to lead them in a reorganization in the spirit of his father.  Three years later the group authorized the sending of missionaries to Utah, Nevada, and California, and before that year was over the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints was established in Watsonville under the leadership of George Adams, already a Watsonville resident.  A more prominent Reorganized LDS member, one who had arrived on the Brooklyn with his family, was Moses Meder of Santa Cruz.  Source for this information is Heman C. Smith, History of the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. Vol. 3, 1844-1872, and Vol. 4, 1873-1890, which is on the website of this church: 2008.  Smith has additional information about George Adams's leadership role in the Reorganized LDS Church.  That Adams was a Watsonville resident is attested by the U. S. Censuses of 1860 and 1870.


Latter Day Saints. Watsonville, c1860-1879.

The Directory of the town of Watsonville for 1873. Compiled by Ed. Martin, Watsonville. C. O. Cummings, Publisher, page 11, states, "Latter Day Saints, A branch of Joseph Smith's church, reorganized, having no connection or sympathy with Brigham Young's peculiar doctrine, have a small church on First street...."  This is one of a mere four churches listed in the Watsonville Directory.

In 1876 Joseph Smith III visited California and in his own account of the visit wrote that he stayed in Watsonville in the home of D. J. Phillips stating, "The Saints held a meeting at their chapel on Saturday evening, but we did not attend; on the morrow, however, the rink having been secured [??], we addressed the people morning and evening, and again on Monday evening, attending a sacramental service on Sunday afternoon in the chapel. The services were well attended throughout." (Smith, op. cit., Vol. 4, Chapter 10.  The entire chapter is about the trip, and it includes interesting observations about Santa Cruz County made by Joseph Smith III.)

Ed. Martin wrote in Elliott’s 1879, Santa Cruz County, page 72, that "A branch of Joseph Smith's church, reorganized, have [sic] a small church on First street.  Services occasionally by visiting ministers of the Latter Day Saints.”

Details from Watsonville Pajaronian of Sep. 30, 1907 are that the church was established by a certain Bishop Adam [sic] “in the late fifties or early sixties,” and that by 1907 it had been moved to the other side of First Street and was being used as a barn.


Happy Valley Conference Center. Santa Cruz County, 1951-2010.

            This is a campground of the "Community of Christ," the name given to the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints since 2001. The headquarters of the denomination are in Independence MO.  The facility was a resort hotel until the denomination bought it, in 1951. ( 2010)  It is located at 2159 Branciforte Dr., Santa Cruz 95065, tel. 426-6627 ( 2010)


Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.  Live Oak, 1971-2006.

            Polk 1971 through 1981 listed the <Latter Day Saints Church at 230 Plymouth St., Santa Cruz.  Polk 1982-83 had no listing for the congregation under either name, but the SC Sentinel, July 26, 1984 listed it as the "Reorganized Church..." at 2301 17th Ave.  The Yellow Pages continued to list it at that address at least through 1998, but not in 2003.  Nevertheless, the church structure and its identifying sign I saw still to be there as late as December, 2006.  The Community of Christ, however, no longer lists it as one of their congregations. ( 2007 and 2008)


#14   Communal (Communal family)



                        #14.1  Ohlone People

                        #14.2  Romani People

                        #14.3  Communes founded before the 1960s

                        #14.4  Hippie communes of the 1960s counterculture

                        #14.5  Communes founded since the 1960s counterculture


            In the essay, "Meaning of the term spirituality" in Chapter 5 Particulars, it is pointed out that group spirituality is "the shared faith of a smaller or larger number of persons." The communal family is only one of three kinds of associations that have a shared faith. The three are:


            1.         Institutional bodies such as the Catholic Church or other religious institutions into which people are born or which they join as individuals. In the sense that the organization has a kind of life of itself, the members belong to it rather than constitute it. The great majority of associations listed in this study have this kind of spirituality.

            2)        Various peoples of the world who have within their body cultural, historical, and genetic ties and a distinctive spirituality embedded in these ties. The Encyclopedia of American Religions does not have a place for this type of spirituality, but the present study needs one because of two groups that must not be ommitted, the Ohlone and the Romani. I put them here, under Communal Family, as the most appropriate place for them.

            3)        Intentional communities, also known as communes, which are constituted by the will of the members.  Communes do not have to have a spirituality, but historically most communes throughout the world have arisen from a religious background and and possess therefore an inherent spirituality. Following Timothy Miller, The 60s Communes: Hippies and Beyond. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press, 1999, pp. xxi-xxiv, it can be said that the characteristics of intentional communities are that they have

                        - a sense of common purpose and of separation from the dominant society,

                        - some form and level of self-denial, of voluntary suppression of individual choice in favor of the good of the group,

                        - geographic proximity.

                        - personal interaction,

                        - economic sharing, and

                        - real existence.


            Monasteries and convents, a few of which are found in Santa Cruz County, are examples of intentional communities which are of type 1, that is, of institutional spirituality, and they are listed under their religious families in this study. There are also intentional communities which have been formed outside denominational structures. The Encyclopedia's Communal Family consists of a few small denominational groups, such as Hutterites, which do not and have not existed in Santa Cruz County, of a number of non-denominational Christian groups, and of some decidedly non-institutional groups, that is to say, hippies and others. These are the groups which, along with the Ohlone and Romani, make up #14 of the present study


#14.1 Ohlone People. Community, Santa Cruz area, before 1791-2010.

Details on the spirituality of the Ohlone are in the essay "Ohlone People" in Chapter 5 Particulars.  Although the essay does not state it, I think it to be incontrovertible that some present day Santa Cruz County residents have Ohlone blood.


#14.2 Romani People. Community, Santa Cruz area, 1876-1948.

            Details on the spirituality of the Romani (<Roma or <Gypsies) are in the essay "Romani People" in Chapter 5 Particulars.


#14.3 Communes founded before the 1960s


            Spirit Fruit Society. Community, Soquel, 1915-1930.

            Founded in Ohio in 1899, this communal group passed its final 15 years in Soquel.  Its story can be found in the essay "Spirit Fruit Society" in Chapter 5 Particulars.


New Jerusalem Colony. Community, Santa Cruz County, c1915-1944.

            From 1901 to 1944 this was the home, in the Skyland/Loma Prieta area, of Mother Alice Benninghoven, an eccentric who gave the impression that she considered her place a religious colony.  Although she did not seem to have disciples or associates, she is credited with the writing of two books: Born of the Spirit, and A Martyr's Vision. (Margaret Louise Rapp Tarquinio, Mama's Memoirs: Growing Up in the Santa Cruz Mountains, pp. 150-155)

John V. Young, in his book, Ghost Towns of the Santa Cruz Mountains, Paper Vision Press, Santa Cruz, 1979, states on p. 88, "While several fine homes are still to be found in the community, the principal attraction at the present is the New Jerusalem colony of Mr. Ernest Benninghoven, a strange religious cult which has struggled along for the last fifteen or twenty years with a handful of converts.  Its center is the 'Mt. Sinai Shrine,' a memorial to the memory of Benninghoven, who departed this earth a few years ago."  Note that although Ghost Towns was published as a book in 1979, it consists of a collection of newspaper articles written by Mr. Young around 1934.


            Holy City. Community, Santa Clara County, 1919-1969.

            This locally well known utopian community, the seat of the "Perfect Christian Divine Way," existed from 1919 until the death of its founder, Father Riker, in 1969.  It was on Old Santa Cruz Highway, about one mile north of Summit Road.

            Practically a small town in itself with hundreds of inhabitants at times, Holy City was more a rostrum for Riker's white supremacist notions than a pulpit for Christian ideals.



            Margaret Louise Rapp Tarquinio.  Mama's Memoirs: Growing Up in the Santa Cruz Mountains, pp.131-134.

            Charles J. Allard. "Father" William E. Riker and his Holy City. San Jose: San Jose State College, 1968.

            Joan B. Barriga. The Holy City Sideshow. California, 1988.

            Richard A. Beal. Highway 17, The Road to Santa Cruz.  Aptos CA: The Pacific Group, 1991.

            Paul Kagan. New World Utopias. A Photographic History of the Search for Community.  New York: Penguin Books, 1975.

            Betty Lewis. Holy City: Riker's roadside attraction in the Santa Cruz Mountains, a nostalgic history. Santa Cruz CA: Otter B. Books, c1992

            William E. Riker. Holy City Booklets. Holy City CA: Holy City Press, ca 1929.


#14.4  Hippie communes of the 1960s counterculture


            Among the ways the counter culture movement of the 1960s and into the 1970s was manifested were protests against the war in Vietnam, protests against institutional academia, mass rock concerts, and hippie communes. Pure hippieness involved a flight from mid-twentieth century culture, rejection of commonly accepted social ways of life and mainstream spiritualities, desire for oneness with the world, and a sense of sharing this aversion with some peers. "Of the communities founded in the late 1960s and early 1970s that championed countercultural values and arose from the hippie idealization of communal living, many were populated by spiritual seekers, variously exploring Eastern, Native American, Christian, independent mystical, and other paths to enlightenment. Some were composed of environmentalists whose devotion to their cause often had strong spiritual elements. Some hip communes were essentially secular, but they were greatly outnumbered by ones espousing at least a vague spirituality." (Albert Bates and Timothy Miller, "The Evolution of Hippie Communal Spirituality: The Farm and Other Hippies Who Didn't Give Up," chapter 38 of Timothy Miller, editor, America's Alternative Religions, Albany: State University of New York Press, 1995, p. 371. Timothy Miller's works The Quest for Utopia in Twentieth-Century America and The 60s Communes: Hippies and Beyond are basic reading regarding intentional communities in the United States.)

From its renowned stronghold in San Francisco the hippie movement spread south.  Communal groups of young people took up temporary residence in out-of-the-way, in some cases abandoned, shacks throughout the Santa Cruz Mountains as well as in out-of-the-way homes. Between their psychedelic drug use as a way of experiencing transcendence of self and their unconventional behavior, the hippies found themselves quite unwanted. Most newspaper article information about them from this era reported mainly that the local population wanted to be rid of them.

Fortunately, there are other sources, among which is a group, the "Hipsters," who are gathering information for a history of the hippie movement in Santa Cruz.  The Hipsters have graciously given me permission to use their collection of material, which is available on the website 2008. In the entries below, I shall cite Hipsters where I use their material.  Other people who were local residents during the hippie period have given me leads through their personal observations of the communes.  From them it is clear that the list below is extremely incomplete, and I hope to be able to add more extensive documented information in the future.

            A clarification: In view of the "vague spirituality" to be found in the majority of hippie communes in general, I am assuming that all Santa Cruz hippie communes that I find belong in the list of spiritual associations. If I am sure that a certain commune is positively not spiritual, I do not list it here.


Koinonia Conference Grounds. Conf center, Santa Cruz County, 1960-2010.

            Incorporated in 1960 as a “Christian bible camp and conference grounds,” (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 2262) this rural camp, which particularly serves youth in summer, has been on Eureka Canyon Road at least since 1961, when the address was 1473. (1961 Yellow Pages)  Its present address is 1605 Eureka Canyon Road, Watsonville 95076, tel. 722-1472. (2010 Yellow Pages) The camp’s website is 2010.

I take it to be associated with the <Koinonia Community.  Established in 1969, (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 3225) the Koinonia Community had "evolved from a small prayer group who opened a coffeehouse in 1967 that served as an experimental Christian mission outreach to young people in trouble, drugs, mostly."  In 1971 the Koinonia Community was housed at 240 West Cliff Dr. and it operated a coffeehouse at 24 Front St. (SC Sentinel, July 7, 1971)

The Front Street address remained in the White Pages only through 1975.  In the 1976 White Pages the West Cliff address was gone, but the Koinonia Community was at 604 Lighthouse Ave., where it stayed  through 1978. (1978 White Pages)


Hippie camp in Scotts Valley. Community, 1966-?

            "In 1966 some 80-100 brightly dressed 'hippies' - 'flower children' - arrived to camp.  Both the men and the women had long hair -beads, fishnet garments, long boots and dresses, die-twist shirts, funky hats-some with beads and feathers.  They were part of the migration out of the Haight-Ashbury district of San Francisco - via the San Lorenzo Valley."  The property where they settled is known as The Ranch. (Seapy, Scotts Valley, p. 241 and p.243)


Holiday Cabins. Community, Ben Lomond, 1967-1970.

            In 1967 there were about 80 "'hep' type persons" living in the San Lorenzo Valley.  Half of these had "taken up residence" in the Holiday Lodge along the San Lorenzo River in May of that year. (Santa Cruz County * A Century, Santa Cruz Sentinel Publishers Company, 1999, pp. 41 and 43, "Santa Cruz Gets Hip," which cites a July 16, 1967 article)

            The commune was also named OM; the average stay was two weeks. Negative law enforcement attention was drawn to it by a jazz festival and it was burned down. (Hipsters)

            "Ben Lomond's infamous Holiday Cabins were ordered torn down by county supervisors yesterday in what may have been the first full-scale county abatement action against substandard housing.  The once-popular 'hippie' gathering place stood accused of polluting the San Lorenzo River with raw sewage and of being a real hazard and fire trap.  Owner Edward Chirco said the true hippies were gone long ago, and a 'new crowd' recently moved out, leaving the old motel in a total mess." (SC Sentinel, Sep. 4, 1968)

            The SC Sentinel of August 14, 1968 tells of more general complaints about "dirty, unshaved, and ill-dressed persons" in the San Lorenzo Valley, and the San Jose Mercury News of June 5, 1970 reports that "Persons living communal style Thursday were declared ineligible for free public surplus food by the Santa Cruz County Social Welfare Advisory Board.  The action is seen as a clampdown on the increasing number of out-of-county young people who flock here, especially during summer months, to live in communes.  Many of the youths occupy abandoned mountain cabins."


Ralph's House. Community, Santa Cruz, 1968-1970.

            This was the home of a University of California Santa Cruz faculty member, on California Street. (Hipsters; also Miller, American Communes Active 1960-1975)


Nirvana. Community, Aptos, 1968-70.

            The owner of a property on Trout Gulch Road put up a sign, "Nirvana," but removed it "when the cops started parking down the road observing us. They did that on and off for the next two years. Meanwhile, dozens of folks moved in and out."  The first Santa Cruz area "Full Moon Festival" was held there in 1968. (Hipsters)


            The Flower Farm. Community, La Selva Beach, c1969-c1974.

            The Flower Farm community was a distribution hub for marijuana, LSD, and peyote. It was closed by a law enforcement action. (Hipsters)


ISOT, “In Search of Truth.” Community, Santa Cruz, 1969-1971.

            ISOT, a Christian religious community, “whose membership is dedicated to being In Search of Truth,” was founded in 1969. ( 2010)  Whether or not it was founded in Santa Cruz, it moved its “principal office” from Santa Cruz to Modoc County in 1971. (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 3480) The website specifies that its Modoc County address is Canby.


Felton Guild. Community, 1969-1979?

The original Felton Guild was on 2.5 acres of land off Highway 9 in Felton, purchased by former Quaker minister Harold Alldis in 1969.  Under Alldis's direction, this small community of young people was involved in arts such as woodworking and print and photo shops.  It lasted at least until 1979, when Alldis moved to Capitola. (Obituary of Harold Hanwell Alldis, SC Sentinel, Sep. 13, 2003)

Now there is - at what I suppose is the same location - a Felton Guild Outdoor Redwood Wedding Cathedral at 5449 Highway 9, Felton 95018, tel. 336-8093. (2010 White Pages) 


Minton Commune. Community, Santa Cruz County, 1970-1971?

            The commune was established on Minton Ranch, China Grade, Boulder Creek, one mile north of Big Basin Highway in 1970, but it was denied county building permits, and the locale was raided by armed local law enforcement officers in March 1971.  Finding 12 clean-appearing people and no evidence of illegal activity, the officers left without arresting anyone. (The Valley Press, Mar. 24, 1971)  There was a commune called <China Grade in "Big Basin Ca. 1968-?" according to Timothy Miller, The 60s Communes: Hippies and Beyond, Appendix: "American Communes Active 1960-1975," pp. 249-285. This commune appears to be the same as the Minton Commune. Its subsequent history is unknown to me.


Camp Joy. Community, Boulder  Creek, 1971-2010.

            Robert V. Hine, in his California Utopianism  Contemplations of Eden, San Francisco: Boyd & Fraser Publishing Company, 1981, writes on page 66:  "Camp Joy, a four-acre farm in Boulder Creek near Santa Cruz, is part of a network dedicated to a redirection of urban life.  Their gardens and orchards are a model of intensive horticulture, heavy mulching, absence of chemicals, and companion planting for higher yields.  Since 1971 the residents have maintained their example of a small farm in an urban context. An idealistic, ecological foundation, the Farallones Institute, has supported them along with other such experiments."

Camp Joy still exists in 2010 in its original community form and as an environmentally sound producer of food and natural boutique items like wreaths. The original operators of Camp Joy were Jim and Beth Nelson. (Valley Press, Apr. 8, 1987)  There is further information about it in the Valley Press, July 1, 1987.  Current information about Camp Joy is on the website 2010, which gives the telephone number, 338-3651, but not the address, which is 131 Camp Joy Road, Boulder Creek 95006, the address, with the same telephone number, of Jim Nelson (2010 White Pages)


Christ Circle.  Community, Boulder Creek, 1974-1978?

            On 160 acres at the end of King's Creek Road, land which was formerly the Satori Conference Center and which was bought in 1974, this commune consisted in 1977 of 29 adults and 26 children, and it had its own school for the children.  It came under scrutiny for being built without permits and for operating an unlicensed group home for children, and it filed for bankruptcy in 1976.  It acquired the reputation of being a cult and it had disappeared by 1983. (The Valley Press, Jan. 19, 1977; the SC Sentinel, Feb. 25, 1977; May 18, 1978; Jan. 25, 1983)


Agricultural Land Conservancy.  Community, Santa Cruz County, 1974-1991

            On 120 acres near Branciforte Creek bought in 1974, later enlarged to 230 acres, a communal group gradually evolved into a partnership, with members living in separate houses and working outside the property. (SC Sentinel, Nov. 10, 1991)  I have no further information about it.


#14.5  Communes founded since the 1960s counterculture


            I am not aware of intentional communities formed in Santa Cruz County since 1975.  The one religious group mentioned below seems to emphasize social, although not physical, community.


New Beginnings With God.  Felton, 1997-2010.

This group, which was founded in 1997, states that it has no church building, but that it meets in members' homes, which are in Felton, Scotts Valley, and Boulder Creek.  In addition to this community aspect, its website stressed the Bible and personal devotion to Jesus. ( - this website was operative in 2007, but not in 2010)  The contact telephone number is 335-4250. (2010 Yellow Pages under "Non Denominational”)


#15   Christian Science-Metaphysical (Christian Science-Metaphysical family)



                        #15.1  Christian Science

                        #15.2  Various Metaphysical


            In early nineteenth century America the findings of Franz Anton Mesmer led to interest in hypnotism and to the healing of physical illnesses by applying a magnetic cosmic force.  A further development was belief in the primacy of mind - that mental power was the basis of existence and could be instrumental in shaping one's physical and mental state.  The bestknown American form of spirituality which arose from belief in the primacy of mental power is Christian Science, but there is also "New Thought," which is closely related to it.

            The following passage from John K. Simmons and Brian Wilson, Competing Visions of Paradise, pp. 66-67, not only aids in the understanding of Christian Science and New Thought, but also says something important about California spirituality in general:


            "During the Pacific-Panama International Exposition held in San Francisco in 1915, Saturday, August 28 was officially declared 'New Thought Day.'  On a typically gorgeous, sunny morning on the Exposition grounds, while presenting a medal commemorating the occasion, Mr. James A. Edgerton, president of the International New Thought Alliance, made the following comments:


Mrs. Annie Rix Militz, as representing the California New Thought Exposition Committee, referred to this California sunshine as New Thought weather.  While it is perfectly true that New Thought stands for mental sunshine, we are entirely willing to give God and your wonderful climate out here some of the credit for this perfect day, but ask you to note the one fact, that New Thought flourishes most where physical and spiritual sunshine abound, as is proven by its strength upon the Golden Coast.  I believe our Cause is stronger in California than in any other part of the world.  New Thought is an attempt to express California weather in our lives (Master Mind, Vol. IX, 50).


"Mr. Edgerton was right.  Christian Science and New Thought, two nineteenth-century sectarian religions that embrace a 'mind over matter,' positive-thinking philosophy, simply worked better in the gentle climate of California.  These metaphysical religions and California were meant for each other, as though California represented a kind of exterior assurance that inner, psychological affirmations of health, happiness, and prosperity were attuned with cosmic harmony.  California was an outer manifestation of inner abundance; a place where the possibilities were endless."

#15.1 Christian Science


            Mary Baker Eddy experienced spiritual enlightenment as a consciousness that only the spirit is real and sin and evil are a deviation from spirit.  Sin and evil are not illusions; neither are they powers in themselves, but with the guidance of Christ Scientist we free ourselves from them.  The ability to heal ourselves of what we call physical ailments is the form of this creed which attracts the greatest attention.  The Church of Christ, Scientist was founded in 1879 in Boston, and within a few years it had spread all the way to Santa Cruz.


Christian Science Church, Santa Cruz. 1897-2009.

            The congregation held meetings in Santa Cruz as far back as 1897. (Koch, Parade of the Past, p. 216)  In 1935 the address of its church was 251 Ocean St., and in 1955 it was 608 Ocean St.(Polk 1935 and 1955)  In 1964 it opened a new structure, (SC Sentinel clipping with date missing) at 612 Ocean St.  The reading room was at the same location. (2008 Yellow Pages, which listed the church as <First Church of Christ Scientist)  The church and reading room are not listed in the 2010 telephone directory, having been, as a member told me, closed in January, 2010.


Christian Science Church, Watsonville. 1898-2010.

            Incorporated in 1907, the congregation had existed informally from 1898.  It built first one church and then another, larger one at the present location. (Koch, Parade of the Past, p. 172)

The April 11, 1903 Pajaronian list of church services states that Christian Science services were held at 32 Brennan Street.  According to the Pajaronian, Nov. 9, 1963, church services were held in Watsonville from 1900, a church structure was built on East Lake in 1931, and the building on Arthur Road was dedicated in 1963.   Its address in Polk 1967 was 460 Arthur Road, but in the 1976 Yellow Pages and subsequently the address was the present one.

 The Santa Cruz County Directory, 1923-34 and Polk 1925 give its address as 12 Brennan; Polk 1946 gives it as 230 East Lake St.

The current address of both church and reading room is 352 Arthur Road, Watsonville 95076, tel. 724-5872. (2010 Yellow Pages, which list it as <First Church of Christ Scientist)


First Church of Christ Scientist, Boulder Creek. 1909-1996.

            Organized in 1909, this congregation bought the former Grace Episcopal church structure in 1923. (SC Sentinel, July 28, 1978)  The entry for Grace Episcopal Church in #1.3 has information on the history of the building before 1923.  The structure was used for worship until 1996, when The San Lorenzo Valley Museum bought it for use as a museum. ("The San Lorenzo Valley Museum," undated pamphlet published by the Boulder Creek Historical Society)


Christian Science Church, Soquel. 1916-2010.

A Christian Science congregation began meeting in a Soquel private home in 1916.  In 1926 they built a structure that burned down in 1927, but they replaced it the same year.  As listed in Polk 1955, the building was at 2835 Porter St., and as listed in Polk 1970 it was at 2841 Porter St.  The present structure, built in 1973, (Santa Cruz News, Apr. 28, 1927 and Koch, Parade of the Past, pp. 216-217) is at 3200 Center St., Soquel 95073, tel. 475-1919. (2010 Yellow Pages, which list it as <First Church of Christ Scientist)

 The reading room, at 3021 Porter St., has the telephone number 475-6177.


First Church of Christ Scientist, Felton. 1956-2006.

            In 1956 a group began meeting in private homes in Felton, and in 1962 they dedicated their newly built structure at 187 Laurel Dr. (Koch, Parade of the Past, p. 217 and SC Sentinel, Aug. 17, 1962)  I do not know when the reading room was opened at 6227 Hwy. 9, Felton, but in 2006 it had the same telephone number as the church. (2006 Yellow Pages)

            In early 2007 (as I observed when I visited both locations) the church structure was for sale and a commercial store was in the place where the reading room had been.


#15.2 Various Metaphysical


Home of Truth. Santa Cruz, 1915-1918.

This congregation used quarters on the second floor of a building at Pacific and Soquel Aves. (SC Surf, May 29, 1915 and photo in UCSC Special Collections, dated 1918)

            In 1887 Annie Rix Militz and her sister, Harriet Rix, established in San Francisco a New Thought church which they named Home of Truth.  Los Angeles came to be its headquarters, and it had congregations in many California cities by 1900.  Only one of these, in Alameda (where it still existed in 1993), survived Rix's death in 1924. (John K. Simmons and Brian Wilson, Competing Visions of Paradise, pp. 79-81, 84)


Unity Temple of Santa Cruz. 1924-2010.

Unity Temple of Santa Cruz is the Santa Cruz "New Thought" congregation, ( 2010) representing the New Thought organizations, Unity Village and its Unity School of Christianity.  The first Unity Church was founded in 1903 by Charles Fillmore and his wife Myrtle in Kansas City, Missouri with the name, "Unity Society of Practical Christianity." (Melton, Encyclopedia *797; pages 107-109 of the same work treat the history of the New Thought movement.)  There are 79 Congregations in the Association of Unity Churches in California, including Unity Temple of Santa Cruz. ( 2010)

            Unity Temple of Santa Cruz has existed at its present location and with its present name since 1955. This is 407 Broadway, Santa Cruz 95062. Tel. 423-8553. (Yellow Pages through 2008; White Pages in 2010)

The earlier stages of Unity Temple are:

            <Universal Truth Center, which was in the Hihn Building in Polk 1924, and at 5 Walnut Ave. in Polk 1926 through 1928.  According to Polk this was at 151 Garfield St. from 1929 through 1939.

<Society of Practical Christianity at 151 Garfield St. from 1928 to 1953. (advertisement of Unity Temple in the SC Sentinel Oct. 29, 2006, p. 77)  Chartered in 1928, this society was for action, and was not a religious corporation. (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 945)

<Unity Truth Center of Santa Cruz.  According to the Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 1773, the Unity Truth Center was incorporated in 1953, and it changed its name to Unity Temple in 1955.

<Unity Truth Center at 151 Garfield St. in Polk 1946 through 1955, although according to the 2006 advertisement the name was not changed to Unity Truth Center until 1953.

            In 1953 the <Unity Church of Santa Cruz was incorporated, in 1955 its name was changed to <Community Church of Santa Cruz, and in 1960 it was dissolved. (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 1782)  Not having details about this incorporated entity, I suppose it was in reality the same as Unity Temple.


Center for Conscious Living. Live Oak, 1964-2010.

            This congregation is one of dozens which follow the teachings of Ernest Holmes, who was a follower of Mary Baker Eddy. (Melton, Encyclopedia, p. 107 and *774. *780, *789, *792, and *796)  The general website for this group is 2010.

            The Center for Conscious Living in Santa Cruz has a history under the name of <Church of Religious Science and <First Church of Religious Science.  It was founded "30 years ago" according to an article about the 100th birthday celebration of one of its co-founders, Marcella Portia Wainwright. (SC Sentinel, Apr. 24, 2005)  This article states that it is in Felton, which evidently is a mistake based on the similarity with "Felt St."

            As stated when it incorporated in 1963, the broad purpose of the organization is “To engage in religious, educational, social, charitable and recreational activities and to provide, furnish and make available education, information, advice and training in relation to religious and mental science, philosophy, psychology, religion, metaphysics and related subjects” as well as to conduct religious services. (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 2739)

In Polk 1964 it was at 1303 Seabright Ave. under the name Church of Religious Science; in Polk 1965-66 through 1968 it went under the name First Church of Religious Science, and was located at 1307 Seabright Ave.  Then, in Polk 1970 through 1988 it went under the latter name, but was 429 Pennsylvania Ave., although in the 1989 through 1991 Yellow Pages it used the former name at the Pennsylvania Ave. address.  It has been at its current address since 1993, initially as the First Church of Religious Science, and, at least since 2003, as the Center for Conscious living. (1993. 1998, and 2003 Yellow Pages)  The location is 1818 Felt St., Santa Cruz 95062, tel. 462-9383. (2010 Yellow Pages)


Inner Light Ministries. Soquel, 1997-2010.

            Founded in 1997, this organization is resolutely non-dogmatic: "the church does not preach any dogma." It met at 846 Front St., Santa Cruz until 1993, when it moved to the previous site of the Church of Grace in Soquel. ("Church's vision now a reality," SC Sentinel, Sep. 23, 2003)  (See #7.2 for the Church of Grace.)

            In 2010 it is at 5630 Soquel Dr., Soquel 95073, tel. 465-9090 according to the Yellow Pages, which list it under "Churches-New Thought."


#16   Spiritualist, Psychic, and New Age (Spiritualist, Psychic, and New Age family)



                        #16.1  Classical American Spiritualism

                        #16.2  American Spiritualism Recent in Origin

                        #16.3  New Age


            The element common to Spiritualists, Psychics, and New Agers is belief in the ability to open our consciousness and allow us to perceive spirits, spiritual forces, and even cosmic forces.  Perception of this kind has a long history, and some degree of it is found in the mysticism of many religions.  The American experience of such perception, however, and its presence in Santa Cruz, can be divided into four headings: 1) classical, dating from 1848 and now found in specifically Spiritualist churches; 2) recent in origin, especially in the environment of the 1960s; 3) strictly Psychic; 4) New Age.  As far as I can tell, the first two and the last of these four types have been found in Santa Cruz.


#16.1 Classical American Spiritualism


            Sources for this section are cited in the essay of the same name in Chapter 5 Particulars, except that new information from the Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation used in this list, shows, as noted below, that the Progressive Spiritualists Church was not the same as the Unity Spiritual Society.

            Eliza Farnham, intellectual, feminist, and spiritualist, held lecture series on Spiritualism in various halls while she was in Santa Cruz, on and off from 1850 to 1860.  Farnham's activity was made possible by the continuous presence of her friend, Georgiana Bruce Kirby, but I am not aware that there was a stable Spiritualist organization here at that time,


Spiritualist Organization.  Watsonville. 1866-1868.

            Spiritualism maintained an organizational presence at least during these years, when local persons were members of the statewide Spiritualist organization.  Spiritualists met in various places.


Spiritualist Organization.  Santa Cruz. 1880-1887.

            Spiritualism maintained an organizational presence at least during these years, when local persons were members of the statewide Spiritualist organization.  Spiritualists met in various places, but in 1892 they were held Sundays AM and Wednesday evenings in Buelah (sic) Hall.


Glen Haven Sanitarium.  Service org, Soquel, 1885-1887.

            Dr. T. B. Taylor founded this health facility, which used scientific and Spiritualist methods.  Dr. R. Brown took it over in 1886, but later the same year moved it to his office in Santa Cruz, and he closed this, too, it seems, in 1887.


Unity Spiritual Society. Santa Cruz, 1889-1903.

The Unity Spiritual Society was incorporated in 1889 “for religious and social purposes.” (Santa Cruz County Articles of Incorporation no. 167)